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equivalent sentence, implies affirmation, and that one phrase may, in sense, be equivalent to another, though its grammatical nature is essentially different.

To verbs belong NUMBER, PERSON, MOQD, and



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Section 2.- Of Number and Person.
Verbs have two numbers, the Singular and the Plu-
ral: as, “ I run, we run,";&c.
In each number there are three persons; as,

First Person. I love. We love.
Second Person. Thou lovest. Ye or you love:
Third Person. He loves.

They love.
Thus the verb, in some parts of it, varies its endiogs, to
express, or agree with different persons of the same num-

I love, thou lovest ; he loveth, or loves :" and also to express different numbers of the same person : as, " thou lovest, ye love : he loveth, they love." In the plural number of the verb, there is no variation of ending to express the different persons; and the verb, in the three persons plural, is the same as it is in the first person singular. Yet this scanty provision of terminations is sufficient for all the purposes of discourse, and no ambiguity arises from it: the verb being always attended, either with the noun expressing the subject acting or acted upon, or with the pronoun representing it. For this reason, the plural termination in en, they loven, they weren, formerly in use, was laid aside as vnnecessary, and has long been obsolete.

SECTION 3.-- Of Movds and Participles. Mood or Modę is a particular form of the verb, showing the manner in which the being, action, or passion, iş represented.

The nature of a mood may be more intelligibly explained to the scholar, by observing, that it consists in the change which the verb undergoes, to signify various intentions of sche mind, and various modifications and circumstances of


action : which explanation, if compared with the follow. ing account and uses of the different moods, will be found to agree with and illustrate them, / There are five moods of verbs, the INDICATIVE, the IMPERATIVE, the POTENTIAL, the


The Indicative Mood simply indicates or declares a thing: as, “ He loves, he is loved :" or it asks a question : as, “Does he love?” “ Is he loved ?”

The Imperative Mood is used for commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting : as, “ Depart thou ; mind ye ; let us stay; go in peace.”

Though this mood derives its name from its intimatina of command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite nature, even in the humblest supplications of an inferior being to one who is infinitely his superior: as,

16 Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive u our trespasses."

The Potential Mood implies possibility or liberty, power, will, or obligation :/-5. " It may rain ; he may 69 or stay ; I can rx!c; he would walk ; they chould learn."

The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c.; and is preceded by a conjunction, expressed or understood, and attended by another verb: as, “ I will respect hin, though he chide me;" “ Were he good, he would be happy;" that is, "" if he were good.”

The Infinitive Mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without any distinction of lamber or person : as, “ to act, to speak, to be feared."

The participle is a certain form of the verb, and derives its name from its participating, not only of the properties of a verb, but also of those of an adjective: as, “ I am desirous of knowing him ; admired and applauded, he became vain ;” “ Having finished his work, he submitted it,” &c.

There are three participles, the Present or Active, the Perfect or Passive, and the Compound Perfect: as, “ loving, loved, having loved.”

Agreeably to the general practice of grammarians, we have represented the present participle, as active ; and the past, as passive : but they are not uniformly so : the present is sometimes passive; and the past is frequently active. Thus, “ The youth was consuming by a slow malady;" “ The Indian was burning by the cruelty of his enemies ;” appear to be instances of the present participle being used passively. “ He has instructed me;" “ I have gratefully repaid his kindness ;” are examples of the past participle being applied in an active sense. We may also observe, that the present participle is sometimes associated with the past and future tenses of the verb; and the past parti, ciple connected with the present and future tenses. The most unexceptionable distinction which grammarians make between the participles, is, that the one points to the continuation of the action, passion, or state, denoted by the verb; and the other, to the completion of it. Thus, the present participle signifies imperfect action, or action begun and not ended : as, “ I am writing a letter.” The past participle signifies action perfected, or finished : as, “I have written a letter ;" “ the letter is written.'

The participle is distinguished from the adjective, by the former's expressing the idea of time, and the latter's denoting only a quality, The phrases,“ loving to give as well as to receive," " moving in haste," "heated with li, quor,” contain participles giving the idea of time; but the epithets contained in the expressions, “a loving child," 's a moving spectacle," "a heated imagination,” mark simply the qualities referred to, without any regard to time; and may properly be called participial adjectives.

* When this participle is joined to the verb to have, it is called perfect, when it is joined to the verb ,o be, or understood with it, it is denominated passive:

Participles not only convey the notion of time; but: they also signify actions, and govern the cases of pronouns, in the same manner as verbs do ; and therefore should be comprehended in the general name of verbs. That they are mere modes of the verb, is manifest, if our definition of a verb be admitted; for they signify being, doing, or suffering, with the designation of time superadded. But if the essence of the verb, be made to consist in affirmation' or assertion, not only the participle will be excluded from its place in the verb, but the infinitive itself also ; which certain ancient grammarians of great authority held to be alone the genuine verb.

The following phrases, even when considered in themselves, show that participles include the idea of time'; “The letter being written, or having been written;" “ Charles being writing, having written, or having been writing." But when arranged in an entire sentence, which they must be to make a complete sense, they show it still more evi. dently; as, “ Charles having written the letter, sealed and dispatched it.”—The participle does indeed associate with different tenses of the verb: as, “I am writing," " I was writing," “ I shall be writing :" but this forms no just objection to its denoting time. If the time of it is often relative time, this circumstance, far from disproving, supports our position. ** See observations under Rule 13. of Syntax.

Participles sometimes perform the office of suốstantives, and are used as such; as in the following instances :

" The beginning'.;""" a good understanding ;" "excellent writing ;' ** The chancellor's being attached to the king secured his crown;" “ The general's having failed in this enterprise occasioned his disgrace ;">* • John's having been writing a long time had wearied him.”

That the words in italics of the three latter examples, perform the office of substantives, and may be considered as such, will be evident, if we reflect, that the first of them has exactly the same meaning and construction as, chancellor's attachment to the king secured his crown ;**

« The

* From the very nature of time, an action may be present now, it may have been present fornerly, or'it may be present at some future period--yet whoeve supposed, that the present of the indicative denotes no time?

Encyclopædia Britannica.

and that the other examples will bear a similar construction. The words being attached, govern the word chancel lor's in the possessive case, in the one instance, as clearly as attachment governs it in that case, in the other : and it is only substantives, or words and phrases which operate 20 substantives, that govern the genitive or possessive case.

The following sentence is not precisely the same as the above, either in sense or construction, though, except the genitive case, the words are the same; “ 'The chancellor being attached to the king, secured his crown.". In the former, the words being attached, form the nominative case to the verb, and are stated as the cause of the effect; in the latter, they are not the nominative case, and make only a circumstance to chancellor, which is the proper no. minative. It may not be improper to add another form of this sentence, by which the learner may better understand the peculiar nature and form of each of these modes, of expression : “ The chancellor being attached to the king, his crown was secured.”. This constitutes what is properly called, the Case Absolute.

SECTION 4.-Remarks on the Potential Mood. That the Potential Mood should be separated from the subjunctive, is evident, from the complexness and confušion which are produced by their being blended together, and from the distinct nature of the two moods; the former of which may be expressed without any condition, supposition, &c. as will appear from the following instances : "They might have done better;" “ We may always act uprightly;" “ He was generous, and would not take reyenge;" “ We should resist the allurements of vice;”. “ I Gould formerly indulge myself in things, of which I cannot now think but with pain."

Some grammarians have supposed that the Potential Mood, as distinguished above from the Subjunctive, coincides with the Indicative. But as the latter « simply indicates or declares a thing," it is manifest that the former, which modifies the declaration, and introduces an idea materially distinct from it, must be considerably different. “ I can walk," " I should walk," appear to be so essentially distinct from the simplicity of “ I walk," “ I walked,” as to warrant a correspondent distinction of moods. • The Imperative and Infinitive Moods, which are allowed


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