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Infinitive Mood. Present. To have.

Perfeet. To have had.

Present or Active. Having

Compound Perfect.

Having had. As the subjunctive mood, in English, has no variation, in the form of the verb, from the indicative, (except in the present tense of verbs generally, and the present and imperfect tenses of the verb to be,) it would be superfluous to conjugate it in this work, through every tense. But all the other moods and tenses of the verbs, both in the active and passive voices, are conjugated at large, that the learners may have no doubts or misapprehensions respecting their particular forms. They to whom the subject of grammar is entirely new, and young persons especially, are much more readily and effectually instructed, by seeing the parts of a subject so essential as the verb, unfolded and spread before them, in all their varieties, than by being generally and cursorily informed of the manner in which they may be exhibited The time employed by the scholars, in consequence of this display of the verbs, is of small moment compared with the advantages, which they will probably derive from the plan.

It may not, however, be generally proper for young persons beginning the study of grammar, to commit to memory all the tenses of the verbs. If the simple tenses, namely, the present and the imperfect, together with the

first future tense, should, in the first instance, be committed to memory, and the rest carefully perused and explained, the business will not be tedious to the scholars, and their progress will be rendered more obvious and pleasing. The general view of the subject, thus acquired and impressed, may afterwards be extended with ease and advantage.

It appears to be proper, for the information of the learn. ers, to make a few observations in this place, on some of the tenses, &c. The first is, that some grammarians confound the imperfect and perfect tenses of the potential. mood with the present tense : but that they are really distinct, ar:d have an appropriate reference to time, corres. pondent to the definitions of those tenses, will appear from

ger arrives.”

a few examples :-“I wished him to stay, but he would not ;" “ I could not accomplish the business in time;"> “ It was my direction that he should submit ;"“ He was ill, but I thought he might live;" “I may have misunder. .. stood him ;" “ He may have deceived me;" “ I cannot have dreamed it ;' “ He cannot have obtained it by force ;" “ Can we have been deceived in him!"_These examples show, that the imperfect and perfect tenses of the potential mood, are essentially distinct from the pluperfect, as well as from the present tense of that mood.

The next remark is, that the auxiliary will, in the first person singular and plural of the second future tense ; and the auxiliary shall

, in the second and third persons of that tense, in the indicative mood, appear to be incorrectly applied. The impropriety of such associations may be inferred from a few examples : “ I will have had previous notice, whenever the event happens ;” “ Thou shalt have served thy apprenticeship before the end of the year ;" He shall have completed his business when the messen

I shall have had ; thou wilt have served ; he will have completed,” &c. would have been correct and applicable. The peculiar import of these auxiliaries, as explained in page 84, under section 7, seems to account, for their impropriety in the applications just mentioned.

Some writers on Grammar object to the propriety of admitting the second future, in both the indicative and sub. junctive moods : but that this tense is applicable to botii moods, will be manifest, from the following examples. “ John will have earned his wages the next new-year's day;" is a simple declaration, and thereforein the indicative mood; “ If he shall have finished his work when the bell rings, ne will be entitled to the reward,” is conditional and coniin. gent, and is therefore in the subjunctive mood.

We shall conclude these detached observations, with orie remark which may be useful to the young scholar', namely, that as the indicative mood is converted into the subjunctive, by the expression of a condition, supposition, wish, motive, &c. being superadded to it; so the potential mood may, in like manner, be turned into the subjunctive ; as will be seen in the following examples: "If I could deceive lim, I should abhor it ;" “ Though he should increase in wealth, he would not be charitable " “ Even in prosperity he would gain no esteem, unless he should conduct him, self better."

G 2

The auxiliary and neuter verb To be, is conjugat: ed as follows:




Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.
1. I am.

1. We are. 2. Thou art.

2. Ye or you are. 3. He, she, or it is. 3. They are.

Imperfect Tense. Singular. 1. I was.


We were. 2. Thou wast.

2. Ye or you were: 3. He was.

3. They were.

Perfect Tense.

Plural. 1. I have been.

1. We have been. 2. Thou hast been:

2. Ye or you have been, 3. He hath or has been. 8. They have been.

Pluperfect Tense Singular. 1. I had been.

1. We had been.
2. Thou hadst been. 2. Ye or you had been.
3. He had been.

3. They had been.
First Future Tenise.

Plural. 1. I shall or will be.

1. We shall or will be. 2. Thou shalt or wilt be. 2. Ye or you shall or will be. 3. He shall or will be. 3. They shall or will be.

Second Future Tense.

Singular. 1. I shall or will have been. 1. We shall or will have been. 2. Thou shalt or wilt have 2, Ye or you shall or will have been.

been, 3. He shallorwill have been. 3. Theyshaller will havebeen.

Imperative Mood.


Singular. 1. Let me be.

1. Let us be. 2. Be thou or do thou be. 2. Be ye or you, or do ye be. 3. Let him be.

3. Let them be.


+ Plural.



Potential Mood.

Present Tense. Singular. 1. I may or can be. 1. We may or can be, 2. Thou mayst or canst be. 2. Ye or you may or can be. 3. He may or can be. 3. They may or can be.

Imperfect Tense. Singular. 1. I might, could, would, 1. We might, could, would, or should be.

or should be 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you 'might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst be. would, or should be. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would, or should be.

or should be.

Perfect Tense. Singular. 1. I may or can have been, 1. We may or can have been. 2. Thou mayst or canst have 2. Ye or you may or can have been.

been. 3. He may or can have been. 3. They mayor can have been

Pluperfect Tense. Singular. 1. I might, could, would, 1. We might, could, would,

or should have been. or should have been. 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have been.

been. 9. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would, or should have been. or should have been.

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.

Plural. j. If I be.

1. If we be. 2. If thou be.

2. If ye or you be. 3. If he be.

3. If they be.

Imperfect Tense. Singular. 1. If I were.

1. If we were. 2. If thou wert,

2. If ye or you were. 3. If he were.

3. If they were. The remaining tenses of this mood are, in every respect, similar to the correspondent tenses of the indicative mood. See pages 78, 88, and the notes under the nineteenth rule



of syntar.

Infinitive Mood.
Present Tense. To be. Perfect. To have been.

Present. Being

Perfect. Been.
Compound Perfect. Having been.
SECTION 7.The auxiliary Verbs conjugated in their

simple form ; with observations on their peculiar nature and force.

The learner will perceive that the preceding auxiliary verbs, to have and to be, could not be conjugated through all the moods and tenses, without the help of other auxiliary verbs; namely, may, can, will, shall, and their variations.

That auxiliary verbs, in their simple state, and unassisted by others, are of a very limited extent, and chiefly useful from the aid which they afford in conjugating the princi. pal verbs, will clearly appear to the scholar, by a distinct conjugation of each of them, uncombined with any other. They are exhibited for his inspection ; not to be committed to memory.


Present Tense.
Sing. 1. I have. 2. Thou hast. 3. He hath or has.
Plur. l. We have. 2. Ye or you have. 3. They have.

Imperfect Tense.
Sing. 1. I had. 2. Thou hadst. 3. He had.
Plur. l. We had. 2. Ye or you had. 3. They had.

Present. Having.

Perfect. Had .

Present Tense.
Sing. 1. I am,

2. Thou art. 3. He is. Plur, 1. We are. 2. Ye or you are. 3. They are.

Imperfect Tense. Sing. J. I was, 2. Thou wast.

3. He was. Plur. 1, We were. 2. Ye or you were. 3. They were.

Present. Being

Perfect, Been.

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