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Present.

Imperfect Know,

knew, Lade,

laded, Lay,

laid, Lead,

led, Leave,

left, Lend,

lent, Let,

let, Lie, to lie down, lay, Load,

loaded, Lose,

lost, Make,

made, Meet,

met, Mow,

mowed, Pay,

paid, Put,

put, Read,

read, Rend,

rent, Rid,

rid, Ride,

rode, Ring,

rung, rang, Rise,

rose, Rive,

rived, Run,

ran,
sawed,

said, See,

saw, Seek,

sought, Sell,

sold, Send,

sent, Set,

set, Shake,

shook,

shaped, Shave,

shaved, Shear,

sheared,
shed,
shone, R.

showed, Shoe,

shod, Shoot,

shot,

Perf. or Pass. Part. known. laden. laid. led. left. lent. let. lain. laden, R. lost. made. met. mown, A. paid. put. read. rent. rid. rode, ridden.! rung. risen. riven. run. sawn, R. said. seen. sought. sold. sent. set. shaken. shaped, shapen shayen, R. shorn. shed. shone, R. shown. shod. shot.

Saw, Say,

Shape,

Shed, Shine,

Show,

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slew,

Slide, Sling, Slink,

Lamperfect.

Perf. or Page, Parte shrunk,

shrunk. shred,

shred. shut,

shut. sung, sang, sung sunk, sank,

sunk. sat,

sat.

slain. slept,

slepto slid,

slidden. slung,

slung slupk,

slunk. slit, R.

slit, or slitted. smote,

smitten. sowed,

sown, R. spoke,

spoken. sped,

sped. spent,

spent. spilt, R.

spilt, R. spun,

spun. spit, spat,

epit, spitten.* split,

split. spread,

spread. sprung, sprang, sprung stood,

stood. stole,

stolen. stuck,

stuck. stung,

stung.

stunk. strode or strid, stridden. struck,

struck or stricken strung,

strung
strove,

striven.
strown, strowed,

strewed.
swore,

SWORD: swet, R.

swet, R. swelled,

swollen, R. swum, swam, swum. swung,

swung. took,

taken. Spitlen is scarly obsolete.

Slit,
Smite,
Sow,
Speak,
Speed,
Spend,
Spill,
Spin,
Spit,
Split,
Spread
Spring,
Stand,
Steal,
Stick,
Sting,
Stink,
Stride,
Strike,
String,
Strive,
Strow or streit,
Swear,
Sweat,
Swell,
Swim,
Swing,
Take,

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stunk,

Wear, Weave, Weep, Win, Wind, Work, Wring,

wrote,

Present.
Imperfect.

Pert. ar rasl. ran
Teach,
taught,

taught. Tear, tore,

torn. Tell, told,

told. Think,

thought, thought. Thrive,

throve, R. thriven. Throw, threw,

thrown. Thrust, thrust,

thrust. Tread, trod,

trodden. Wax, waxed,

waxen, R. wore,

worn. wove,

Woyen. wept,

wept. won,

WON. wound,

wound. wrought,

wrought or worked wrung,

wrung. Write,

written. In the preceding list, some of the verbs will be found to be conjugated regularly, as well as irregularly; and those which admit of the regular form are marked with an R. There is a preference to be given to some of these, which custom and judgment must determine. Those preterits and participles which are first mentioned in the list, seem to be most eligible. The Compiler has not inserted such verbs as are irregular only in familiar writing or discourse, and which are improperly terminated by t, instead of ed: as, learnt, spelt, spilt, &c. These should be avoided in every sort of composition. It is, however, proper to observe, that some contractions of ed into 1, are unexceptionable : and others, the only established formg of expression : as crept, gilt, &c.: and lost, felt, slept, &c. These allowable and necessary contractions must-therefore be carefully distinguished by the learner, from those that are exceptionable. The words which are obsolete have also been omitted, that the learner might not be induced to mistake them for words in present use.

Such are, wreathen, drunken, holpen, molten, gotten, halden, boundeo &c.; and swang, wrang, slank, strawed, gat. Erake, care ware, &c.

Present.

Section 11. Of Defective Verbs; and of the different ways

in which verbs are conjugated. DEFECTIVE VERBS are those which are used only in some of their moods and tenses.

The principal of them are these.
Imperiert.

Perf. or Pass. Part.
Can,

could, May,

might, Shall,

should, Will,

would, Must, ,

must, Ought,

ought,

quoth, That the verbs must and ought have both a present and past signification, appears from the following sentences :

I must own that I am to blame;" 66. He must have been mistaken ;" “ Speaking things which they ought not ;" These ought ye to have done.”

In most languages there are some verbs which are de. fective with respect to persons.

These are denominated impersonal verbs. They are used only in the third per. son, because they refer to a subject peculiarly appropriated to that person; as,

“ It rains, it snows, it hails, it lightens, it thunders.” But as the word impersonal implies a total absence of persons, it is improperly applied to those verbs which have a person: and hence it is manifest, that there is no such thing in English, nor indeed, in any language, as a sort of verbs really impersonal.

The whole number of verbs in the English language, regular and irregular, simple and compounded, taken to gether, is about 4300. The number of irregular verbs, the defective included, is about 177.*

Some Grammarians have thought that the English verbs, as well as those of the Greek, Latin, French, and other languages, might be classed into several conjugations ; and that the three different terminations of the participle Inight be the distinguishing characteristics. They have accordingly proposed three conjugations; namely, the

* The whole number of words, in the English language, is about thirty-five thersand.

first to consist of verbs, the participles of which end in ed, or its contraction t; the second, of those ending in ght; and the third of those in en. But as the verbs of the first conjugation, would so greatly exceed in number those of both the others, as may be seen by the preceding account of them; and as those of the third conjugation are so various in their form, and incapable of being reduced to one plain rule ; it seems better in practice, as Dr. Lowth just. ly observes, o consider the first in ed as the only regular jorm, and the other as deviations from it; after the ex. ample of the Saxon and German Grammarians. Before we close the account of the verbs, it

may

afford instruction to the learners, to be informed, more particularly than they have been, that different nations have made use of different contrivances for marking the tenses and moods of their verbs. The Greeks and Latins dis. tinguish them, as well as the cases of their nouns, adjectives, and participles, by varying the termination, or otherwise changing the form, of the word ; retaining, however, those radical letters, which prove the inflection to be of the same kindred with its root.

The modern tongues, particularly the English, abound in auxiliary words, which vary the meaning of the noun, or the verb without requiring any considerable varieties of inflection. Thus, I do love, I did love, I have loved, I had loved, I shall love, have the same import with amo, amabam, amavi, amaveram, amabo. It is obvious, that a language, like the Greek and Latin, which can thus comprehend in one word the meaning of two or three words, must have some advantages over those which are not so comprehensive. Perhaps, indeed, it may not be more perspicuous; but, in the arrangement of words, and consequently in harmony and energy, as well as in conciseness, it may be much more elegant

CHAPTER VII.

Of Adverbs. An Adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, and sometimes to another adverb, to express some quality or circumstance respecting it: as, He

K

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