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or

as,

year 1720;" "He dwells in the city;" “ She lives in af duence.'

Into is used after verbs that imply motion of any kind. as, “ He retired into the country;" “Copper is converted into brass."

Within, relates to something comprehended in any place time : : as, “ They are within the house ;" “ He began and finished his work within the limited time.” The signification of without is opposite to that of within:

“ She stands without the gate :" But it is more frequently opposed to with ; as, “ You may go without me."

The import and force of the remaining prepositions will be readily understood, without a particular detail of them We shall, therefore, conclude this head with observing, that there is a peculiar propriety in distinguishing the use of the prepositions by and with ; which is observable in sentences like the e following : “ He walks with a staff by moonlight;" “ He was taken by stratagem, and killed with a sword." Put the one preposition for the other,

, “ he walks by a staff with moonlight; taken with stratagem, and killed by a sword;" and it will appear, that they differ in signification more than one, at first view, would be apt to imagine.

Some of the prepositions have the appearance and effect of conjunctions ; as, After their prisons were thrown

Before I die ;"" “ They made haste to be prepared against their friends arrived :" but if the noun time, which

is understood, be added, they will lose their conjunctive form; as, “ After the time when their pri

The prepositions after, before, above, beneath, and several others, sometimes appear to be adverbs, and may be so considered: as, “They had their reward soon after;" He died not long before ;"> <He dwells above :” but if the nouns time and place be added, they will lose their adverbial

“ He died not long before that time," &c.

and say,

“ he was

open,” &c.

sons,” &c.

form; as,

CHAPTER IX.

Of Conjunctions. A CONJUNCTioN is a part of speech that is chiefly used lo connect sentences; so as, out of two or more sen

1

tences, to make but one. It sometimes connects only words.

Conjunctions are principally divided into two sorts, the COPULATIVE and the DISJUNCTIVE.

The Conjunction Copulative serves to connect or to continue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &c. : as, 6. He and his brother reside in London;" “ I will go if he will accompany me:" “ You are happy, because you are good.

The Conjunction Disjunctive serves, not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different degrees : as, Though he was frequently reproved, yet he did not reform;" " They came with her, but they went away without her."

The following is a list of the principal Conjunctions. The Copulative. And, if, that, both, then, since, for,

because, therefore, wherefore. The Disjunctive. But, or, nor, as, than, lest, though,

unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding. The same word is occasionally used both as a conjunction and as an adverb; and sometimes, as a preposition. J rest then upon this argument;" then is here a conjunction : in the following phrase, it is an adverb; " He arrived then, and not before." " I submitted; for it was vain to resist:" in this sentence, for is a conjunction ; in the next, it is a preposition : " He contended for victory only.” In the first of the following sentences, since is a conjunction ; in the second, it is a preposition; and in the third, an adverb : “ Since we must part, let usi do it peaceably:" “ I have not seen him since that time :''. “Our friendship commenced long since."

Relative pronouns as well as conjunctions, serve to connect sentences : as, Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord, and keepeth his commandments."

A relative pronoun possesses the force both of a pronoun and a connective. Nay, the union. by relatives is rather closer, than that by mere conjunctions. The latter may form two or more sentences into one ; but, by the former, several sentences may incorporate -in one and the same clause of a sentence. Thus, thou seest a man, and he is

66 Wis

called Peter," is a sentence consisting of two distinct clauses, united by the copulative and : but, “ the man whom thou seest is called Peter,” is a sentence of one clause, and not less comprehensive than the other.

Conjunctions very often unite sentences, when they appear to unite only words ; as in the following instances : * Duty and interest forbid vicious indulgences ;' dom or folly governs us."

Each of these forms of

express sion contains two sentences, namely; “Duty forbids vicious indulgences; interest forbids vicious indulgences ;" Wisdom governs us, or folly governs is.

Though the conjunction is commonly used to connect sentences together, yet, on some occasions, it merely connects words, not sentences; as, “ The king and queen are an amiable pair;" where the affirmation cannot refer to each; it being absurd to say, that the king or the queen only is an ainiable pair: So in the instances, “ two and two are four;" “ the fifth and sixth yolumes will complete the set of books.” Prepositions also, as before observed, connect words ; but they do it to show the relation which the connected words have to each other: conjunctions, when they unite words only, are designed to show the relations, which those words, so united, have to other parts of the sentence.

As there are many conjunctions and connective phrases appropriated to the coupling of sentences, that are never employed in joining the members of a sentence ; -80 there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former; and some that are equally adapted to both those purposes : as, again, further, besides, &c. of the first kind; than, lest, unless, that, so that, &c. of the second; and but, and, for, therefore, &c. of the last.

We shall close this chapter with a few observations on the peculiar use and advantage of the conjunctions; a subject which will, doubtless, give pleasure to the ingenious student, and expand his views of the importance of his grammatical studies.

“Relatives are not so useful in language, as conjunc tions. The former make speech more concise ; the latter prake it more explicit. Relatives comprehend the mean

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ing of a pronoun and conjunction copulative : conjunctions, while they couple sentences, may also express opposition, inference, and many other relations and dependences.

Till men began to think in a train, and to carry their reasonings to a considerable length, it is not probable that they would make much use of conjunctions, or of any other connectives. Ignorant people, and children, generally speak in short and separate sentences. The same thing is true of barbarous nations : and hence incultivated languages are not well supplied with connecting particles. The Greeks were the greatest reasoners that ever appear. ed in the world ; and their language, accordingly, abounds more than any other in connectives.

Conjunctions are not equally necessary in all sorts of writing. In poetry, where great conciseness of phrase is required, and every appearance of formality avoided, many of them would have a bad effect. In passionate language too, it may

be
proper

to omit them: because it is the nature of violent passion, to speak rather in disjointed sentences, than in the way of inference and argument. Buoks ol 2phorisms, like the Proverbs of Solomon; have few conhectives ; because they instruct, not by reasoning, but in letached observations. And narrative will sometimes appear very graceful, when the circumstances are plainly Cold, with scarcely any other conjunction than the simple copulative and : which is frequently the case in the histoical parts of Scripture. When narration is full of images or events, the omission of connectives may, by crowding the principal words upon one another, give a sort of picture of hurry and tumult, and so heighten the vivacity of description. But when facts are to be traced down through their consequences, or upwards to their causes ; when the complicated designs of mankind are to be laid open, or conjectures offered concerning them; when the historian argues either for the elucidation of truth, or in order to state the pleas and principles of contending parties; there will be occasion for every species of connective, as much is in philosophy itself

. In fact, it is in argument, investigation, and science, that this part of speech is peculiarly and indispensably necessary."

CHAPTER X.

Of Interjections. INTERJECTIONs are words thrown in between the

puses of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker : as, “Oh! I have alienated my friend; alas ! I fear for life :" “ O virtue! how amiable thou art !"

The English Interjections, as well as those of other languages, are comprised within a small compass. They are of different sorts, according to the different passions which they serve to express.

Those which intimate earnestness or grief, are, 0! oh! ah! ala«! Such as are expressive of contempt, are pish! tush ! of wonder, heigh! reully! strange! of calling, hem ! ho ! soho! of aversion or disgust, foh! fie! away! of a call of the attention, lo! behold! hark ! of requesting silence, hush ! hist! of salutation, welcome! kail ! all hail ! Besides these, several others, frequent in the mouths of the multitude, might be enumerated; but, in a grammar of a cultivated tongue, it is unnecessary to expatiate on such expressions of passion, as are scarcely worthy of being ranked among the branches of artificia language.-See the Octavo Grammar.

CHAPTER XI.

Oj Derivation. SECTION 1. Of the various ways in which words are de

rived from one another. Having treated of the different sorts of words, and their various modifications, which is the first part of Etymology, it is now proper to explain the methods by which one word is derived from another.

Words are derived from one another in various ways; viz.

1. Substantives are derived from verbs.

2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs.

3. Adjectives are derived from substantives. 4. Substantives are derived from adjectives. 5 Adverts are derived from adjectives

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