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li" to the former, and the antecedent to the latter verb: as, " True philosophy, which is the ornament of our nature, consists more in the love of our duty, and the practice of virtue, than in great talents and extensive knowledge."
A few instances of erroneous construction, will illustrate both the branches of the sixth rule. The three following refer to the first part. “ How can we avoid being grateful to those whom, by repeated kind offices, have proved themselves our real friends!” “ These are the men whom, you might suppose, were the authors of the work :” “ If you were here, you would find three or four, whom you would say passed their time agreeably:" in all these places it should be who instead of whoin. The two latter sentences contain a nominative between the relative and the
and, therefore, seem to contravene the rule: but the student will reflect, that it is not the nominative of the verb with which the relative is connected. The remaining examples refer to the second part of the rule. of fine talents are not always the persons who we should esteem.” “ The persons who you dispute with, are precisely of your opinion.” 66 Our tutors are our benefactors, who we owe obedience to; and who we ought to love.” In these sentences, whom should be used instead of who.
1. When the relative pronoun is of the interrogative kind, the noun or pronoun containing the answer, must be in the same case as that which contains the question : as, “Whose books are these? They are John's." “ Who gave them to him? We.” “Of whom did you buy them? Of a bookseller ; him who lives at the Bible and Crown."? “Whom did you see there ? Both him and the shopman.” The learner will readily comprehend this rule, by supplying the words which are understood in the answers. Thus, to express the answers at large, we should say,
They are John's books." “We gave them to him.' “ We bought them of him who lives, &c.” both him and the shopman.”-As the relative pronoun, when used interrogatively, refers to the subsequent word or phrase containing the answer to the question, that word or phrase may properly be termed the subsequent to the interrogative.
RULE VII. When the relative is preceded by two nominatives of different persons, the relative and verb may agree in person with either, according to the sense : as, “ I am The man who command you ;" or, “I am the man who commands you."
The form of the first of the two preceding sentences, expresses the meaning rather obscurely. It would be more perspicuous to say ; “ I, who command you, am the man.” Perhaps the difference of meaning, produced by referring the relative to different antecedents, will be more evident to the learner, in the following sentences. "I am the general who gives the orders to-day;” “I am the general, who give the orders to-day;" that is, “I, who give the orders to-day, am the general.”
When the relative and the verb have been determined to agree with either of the preceding nominatives, that agreement must be preserved throughout the sentence; as in the following instance : “ I am the Lord that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone.” Isa. sliv. 24. Thus far is consistent: The Lord, in the third person, is the antecedert, and the verb agrees with the re lative in the third person : “ I am the Lord, which Lord, or be that maketh all things.” If I were made the antecedent, the relative and verb should agree with it in the first person : as, “I am the Lord, that make all things, that stretch forth the heavens alone.” But should it fol
“That spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;" there would arise a confusion of persons, and a manifest solecism.
RULE VIII. Every adjective, and every adjective pronoun, belongs to a substantive, expressed or understood : as, “He is a good, as well as a wise man ;" " Few are hap py;" that is,“ persons :" “ This is a pleasant walk;" that is, “This walk 15," &c.
Adjective pronouns must agree, in number, with their substantives : as, “This book, these books, that sort, those sorts; another road, other roads."
1. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
A few instances of the breach of this rule are here ex. hibited. “I have not travelled this twenty years ;”. “ these twenty.' “I am not recommending these kind of sufferings ; " this kind." " Those set of books was a valuable present ;"?
" that set.” 1. The word means in the singular number, and the phrases, By this means, By that means,
are used by our best and most correct writers ; namely, Bacon, Tillotson, Atterbury, Addison, Steele, Pope, &c.* They are, indeed, in so general and approved use, that it would appear awkward, if not affected, to apply the old singular form, and say, “ By this mean ; by that mean ; it was by
mean;" although it is more agreeable to the general analogy of the language. " The word means (says Priestley) belongs to the class of words, which do not change their termination on account of number; for it is used alike in both numbers.”
The word amends is used in this manner, in the following sentences : Though he did not succeed, he gained the approbation of his country; and with this amends he was content." “ Peace of mind is an honourable amends for the sacrifices of interest.” “ In return, he received the thanks of his employers, and the present of a large estate : these were ample amends for all his labours." “ We have described the rewards of vice: the good iman's amends are of a different nature."
It can scarcely be doubted, that this word amends (like the word means) had formerly its correspondent form in
"By this means, he had them the more at vantage, being tired and ha rassed with a long niarch."
Bacon. ** By this means one great restraint from doing evil, would be taken away."" And this is an admirable means to iinprove men in virtue."-By that means ihey have rendered their duty more difficult."
Tillotson. " It renders us careless of approving ourselves to God, and by that means se curing the continuance of his gwdness.”
"_" A good character, when established, should not be rested in as an end, but employed as a means of doing still further good.
Atterbury. By this means they are happy in each other."-"He by that means preserves his superiority:""
Addison. " Your vanity by this means will want its food."
Steele. By this means alone, their greatest obstacles will vanish."
Pope. “ W'bich custom has proved the most effectual means to ruin the nobles."
support of it.
the singular number, as it is derived from the French amende, though now it is exclusively established in the plural form.
If, therefore, it be alleged that mean should be applied in the singular, because it is derived from the French moyen, the same kind of argument may be advanced in favour of the singular annende ; and the general analogy of the language may also be pleaded in Campbell
, in his “ Philosophy of Rhetoric,” has the following remark on the subject before us : “No persons of taste will, I presume,
venture so far to violate the present usage, and consequently to shock the ears of the generality of readers, as to say, “ By this mean, by that
Lowth and Johnson seem to be against the use of means in the singular number. They do not, however, speak decisively on the point; but rather dubiously, aud as if they knew that they were questioning eminent authorities, as well as general practice. That they were not decidedly against the application of this word to the singular number, appears from their own language: 6. Whole sentences, whether simple or compound, may become members of other sentences by means of some additional connex ion."--Dr. Lowth's Introduction to English Grainmar.
“ There is no other method of teaching that of which any one is ignorant, but by means of something already known.” -Dr. Johnson. Idler.
It is remarkable that our present version of the Scriptures makes no use, as far as the compiler can discover, of the word inean; though there are several instances to
“ There is no means of escaping the persecution." _" Faith is not only a means of obeying, but a principal act of obedience."
Dr. Young. “ He looked on money as a necessary means of maintaining and increasing power."
Lord Lyttelton's Henry Il. “ Joba was too much intimidated not to embrace every means afforded for his safety."
Golilsmith. “ Lest this means should fail."-"By means of ship-money, the late king," &c. " The only means of securing a durable peace."
Hume. By this means there was nothing left to the parliament of Ireland,'' &c.
Blackstone. “ By this means so many slaves escaped out of the hands of their masters."
Dr. Robertson. * By this means they hear witness to each other.”
Burke. “ By this means the wrath of man was made to turn against itself." Dr. Burir. “ A magazine, which has, by this means, contained, &c."...."
.“ Birds, in gene ral, procure their food by means of their beak."
“ That by
be found in it of the use of means, in the sense and connexion contended for. By this means thou shalt have no portion on this side the river." Ezra iv. 16. means of death,” &c. Heb. ix. 15. It will scarcely be pretended, that the translators of the sacred volumes did not accurately understand the English language; or that they would have admitted one form of this word, and rejected the other, had not their determination been conformable to the best usage. An attempt therefore to recover an old word, so long since disused by the most correct writers, seems not likely to be successful; especially as the rejection of it is not attended with any inconvenience.
The practice of the best and most correct writers, or a great majority of them, corroborated by general usage, forms, during its continuance, the standard of language; especially, if, in particular instances, this practice continue, after objection and due consideration. Every connexion and application of words and phrases, thus supported, must therefore be proper, and entitled to respect, if not exceptionable in a moral point of view.
" Si volet usus “ Quem penes arbitrium est, et jus, et nonna loquendi." HOR. On this principle, many forms of expression, not less deviating from the general analogy of the language, than those before mentioned, are to be considered as strictly proper
and iug'ilable. Of this kind are the following: Online of thein are varied to express the gender;" and yet none originally signified no onus, “ He himself shall do the work :" here, what was at first appropriated to the objective, is now properly used as the nominative
". You have behaved yourselves well:" in this example, the word you is put in the nominative case plural, with strict propriety; though formerly it was con: fined to the objective case, and ye exclusively used for the nominative.
With respect to anomalies and variations of language, thus 'established, it is the grammarian's business to submit, not to remonstrate. In pertinaciously opposiog the decision of proper authority, and contending for obsolete modes of expression, he may, indeed, display learning and criucal sagacity; and, in some degree, obscure points