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1 A few instances of erroneous positions of adverbs may serve to illustrate the rule.
6 He must not expect to find study agreeable always ;" always. agreeable.” “ We always find them ready when we want them ;" “ we find them always ready," &c. " Dissertations on the prophecies which have remarkably been fulfilled ;'' * which have been remarkably."." Instead of looking contemptuously down on the crooked in mind or in body, we should look up thankfully to God, who hath made us better ;"! “ instead of looking down contemptuously, &c. we should thankfully look up," &c. “ If thou art blessed naturally with a good memory, continually exercise it;" “ naturally blessed," &c. “ exercise it continually."
Sometimes the adverb is placed with propriety before the verb, or at some distance after it; sometimes between the two auxiliaries; and sometimes after them both; as in the following examples. “Vice always creeps by de. grees, and insensiłly twines around us those concealed fetters, by which we are at last completely bound.” “ He encouraged the English Barons to carry their opposition
farther." “ They compelled him to declare that he would abjure the realm for ever;" instead of, " to carry far. ther their opposition;" and “ to abjure for ever the realın." “ He has generally been reckoned an honest man.” “ The book may always be had at such a place;" in preference to “ has been generally;" and “ may be always.” “ These rules will be clearly understood, after they have been di ligently studied,” are preferable to, “ These rules will clearly be understood, after they have diligently been studied.”
From the preceding remarks and examples, it appears that no exact and determinate rule can be given for the placing of adverbs, on all occasions. The general rule may be of considerable use ; but the easy flow and perspicuity of the phrase, are the things which ought to be chiefly regarded
The adverb there is often used as an expletive; or as a word that adds nothing to the sense ; in which case it frecedes the verb and the nominative noun: as, “ There is a person at the door;" “ There are some thieves in the house ;" wbich would be as well, or better, expressed by saying, “ A person is at the door;" " Some thieves
“ He was
are in the house."
Sometimes, it is made use of to give 1 small degree of emphasis to the sentence: as, There was a man sent from God, whore name was John." When it is applied in its strict sense, it principally follows the verb and the rominative case: as,
The man stands there."
1. The adverb never generally precedes the verb: as, "I never was there ;" “ He never comes at a proper time.” When an auxiliary is used, it is placed indiffer: ently, either before or after this adverb: as, Bever seen (or never was seen) to laugh from that time.”
Never seems to be improperly used in the following passages. “ Ask me never so much dowry and gift.” “If I make my hands never so clean." " Charm he never '30 wisely.” The word “ever would be more suitable to the sense.
2. In imitation of the French idiom, the adverb of place where, is often used instead of the pronoun relative and a preposition. " They framed a protestation, where - they repeated all their former claims;" j. e. “ in which they repeated.” “ The king was still determined to run forwards, in the same course where he was already, by his precipitate career, too fatally advanced ;'' i. e. « in which he was.” But it would be better to avoid this mode of expression.
The adverbs hence, thence, and whence, imply a preposition; for they signify, “ from this place, from that place, from what place.” It seems, therefore, strictly speaking, to be improper to join a preposition with them, because it is superfluous : as, “ This is the leviathan, from whence the wits of our age are said to borrow their weapons ;" “An ancient author prophesies from hence." But the origin of these words is little attended to, and the preposition from so often used in construction with them, that the omission of it, in many cases, would seem stiff, and be disagreeable.
The adverbs here, there, where, are often improperly applied to verbs signifying motion, instead of the adverbs hither, thither, whither : as, “ He came here hastily.;
" " They rode there with speed." They should be, " He came hither ;"
;" " They rode thither,” &c. 3. We have some examples of adverbs being used for
substantives : “In 1687, he erected-it into a community of regulars, since when, it has begun to increase in those countries as a religious order;' i. e.“ since which time.” " A little while and I shall not see you ;' i. e. a short time.” “ It is worth their while ;" i. c. " it deserves their time and pains.” But this use of the word rather suits familiar than grave style. The same may be said of the phrase, “To do a thing anyhow ;”? i. e. “iņ any manner;".
" somehow ;" i. e. " in some manner." “ Somehow, worthy as these people are, they are under the intluence of prejudice."
RULE XVI. · Two negatives, in English, destroy one another, or are equivalent to an affirmative : as, “ Nor did they not perceive bim;" that is, “ they did perceive him." His language, though inelegant, is not ungrammatical;” that is, it is grammatical.
It is better to express an affirmation, by a regular affirmative, than by twe separate negatives, as in the former sentence : but when one of the negatives is joined to another word, as in the latter sentence, the two negatives form a pleasing and delicate variety of expression.
Some writers have improperly employed two negatives instead of one; as in the following instances :
" I never did repent of doing good, nor shall not now; shall
“ Never no imitator grew up to his author :"
did any, &c. “ I cannot by no means allow him what his argument must prove;" “ I cannot by any means," “ I can by no means.
“ Nor let no comforter approach me ;* nor let any comforter,” &c. “ Nor is danger ever apprehended in such a government, no more than we commonly apprehend danger from thunder or earthquakes :" it should be," any more.” « Ariosto, Tasso, Galileo, no inore than Raphael, were not born in republics.” "Neither Ariosto, Tasso, nor Galileo, any more than Raphael, was born in a republic."
RULE XVII. Prepositions govern the objective case as, “I bave
heard a good character of her;" “ From him that is needy tuan not away;" • A word to the wise is sufficient for them ;'> “ We may be good and happy without riches."
The following are examples of the nominative case being used instead of the objective. “Who servest thou under ?” “ Who do you speak to ?” “.We are still much at a loss who civil power belongs to :” “Who dost thou ask for ?"" Associate not with those who none can speak well of.” . In all these places it ought to be “whom.” See Note 1.
The prepositions to and for are often understood, chiefly before the pronouns: as,
“Give me the book ;” “ Get me some paper;" that is, “ to me ; for me." “ Wo is me;' i, e. " to me. ” “ He was banished England;" j. e. "from England."
1. The preposition is often separated from the relative which it governs : as,
“Whom wilt thou give it to ?”' instead of, “ To whom wilt thou give it ?!? “ He is an author whom I am much delighted with ;"? " The world is too polite to shock authors with a truth, which generally their booksellers are the first that inform them of.” This is an idiom to which our language is strongly inclined ; it prevails in common conversation, and suits very well with the familiar style in writing: but the placing of the preposition before the relative, is more graceful, as well as more perspicuous, and agrees much better with the solemn and elevated style.
2. Some writers separate the preposition from its noun, in order to connect different prepositions with the same noun : as, “ To suppose the zodiac and planets to be efficient of, and antecedent to, themselves." This, whether in the familiar or the solemn style, is always inelegant, and should generally be avoided. In forms of law, and the like, where fulness and exactness of expression must take place of every other consideration, it may be admitted.
3. Different relations, and different sepses, must be expressed by different prepositions, though in conjunction with the same verb or adjective. Thus we say, " to converse with a person, upon a subject, in a house, &c.'
We also say, "We are disappointed of a thing," whep we cannot get it," and disappointed in it,” when we have it, and find it does not answer our expectations. But two different prepositions must be improper in the same construction, and in the same sentence : as,
“ The combat between thirty French against twenty English."
In some cases, it is difficult to say, to which of two prepositions the preference is to be given, as both are used promiscuously, and custom has not decided in favour of either of them. We say,
Expert at,” and 5 expert in a thing." “ Expert at finding a remedy for his mistakes;" * Expert in deception."
When prepositions are subjoined to nouus, they are generally the same that are subjoined to the verbs from which the nouns are derived: as, “ A compliance with," " to comply with ;" "A disposition to tyranny," “disposed to tyrannize."
4. As an accurate and appropriate use of the preposition is of great importance, we shall select a considerable number of examples of impropriety, in the application of this part of speech.
1st, With respect to the preposition of—“He is resolved of going to the Persian court;" on going,” &c. was totally dependent of the Papal crown ;'
on the Papal,” &c.“ To call of a person,” and “ to wait of him, on a person,
&c. “He was eager of recommending it to his fellow citizens," " in recommending,” &c. Of is sometimes omitted, and sometimes inserted, after worthy: as, “ It is worthy observation," or, “ of observation." But it would have been better omitted in the following sentences. “ The emulation, who should serve their country best, no longer subsists among them, but of who should obtain the most lucrative command.” “ The rain hath been falling of a long time;" "falling a long time.” " It is situation chiefly which decides of the fortune and characters of men :" “ decides the fortune," or, cerning the fortune."
“ He found the greatest difficulty of u 'iting ;" “ in writing." " It might have given me a greater taste of its antiquities.” A taste of a thing implies actual enjoyment of it; but a taste for it, implies only a capacity for enjoyment. “ This had a much greater sbare of inciting him, than any regard after his father's