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commands;","share in inciting,” and “regard to his father's," &c.

2d, With respect to the prepositions to and for." You have bestowed your favours to the most deserving persons ;" upon the most deserving," &c. “He accused the ministers for betraying the Dutch : of having betrayed.” “ His abhorrence to that superstitious figure;” of that," &c. “A great change to the better ; ' " for the better.” “ Your prejudice to my.cause ;"' " against.“ The English were very different people then to what they are at present ; " " from what, &c. “In compliance to the declaration;" " with,&c. “It is more than they thought for;" thought of.” “There is no need for it;" * of it.For is superfluous in the phrase, “ More than he knows for." "No discouragement for the authors to proceed;”. “ to the authors,” &c. “ It was perfectly in compliance to some persons ;" "wih." “ The wisest princes need not think it any diminution to their greatness, or derogation to their sufficiency, to rely upon counsel ; “diminution of,and.“ derogation froin.

3d, With respect to the prepositions with and upon.“Reconciling himself with the king."

“ Those things which have the greatest resemblance with each other, frequently differ the most.” “ That such rejection should be consonant with our common nature.” " Conformable

“ The history of Peter is agreeable with the sacred texts.” In all the above instances, it should be, " to," instead of “ with." It is a use that perhaps I should not have thought on;" “thought of.A greater quantity may be taken from the heap, without making any sensible alteration upon it;" “ in it.” “Intrusted to

persons on whom the parliament could confide;" " in whom." “ He was made much on at Argos ;' “much of." policy can prevail upon force ;"" over force.”

" I do likewise dissent with the examiner;" " from.

4th, With respect to the prepositions in, from, &c.

They should be informed in some parts of his character;"

;”“ about,or, “ concerning. Upon such occasions as fell into their cognizance;" “ under.” “ That variety of factions into which we are still engaged;"

:? in which." To restore myself into the favour;" " to the favour.” “Could he have profited from repeated experiences :">

with,

» &c.

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by.From seems to be superfluous after forbear : as, “ Hie could not forbear from appointing the pope,” &c.

A strict observance after times and fashion3;" “ of times." “ The character which we may now value ourselves by drawing;” “ upon drawing." "Neither of them shall make me swerve out of the path ;" from the path." Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel;" it ought to be," which strain out a gnat, or take a gnat out of the liquor by straining it." The impropriety of the preposition has wholly destroyed the meaning of the phrase.

The preposition among generally implies a number of things. It cannot be properly used in conjunction with the word every, which is in the singular number: as, “ Which is found among every species of liberty;" “ The opinion seems to gain ground among every body."

5. The preposition to is made use of before nouns of place, when they follow verbs and participles of motion : as," I wentto London ;* "I am going to town." But the

preposition at is generally used after the neuter verb to be: as, * I have been at London ;" “ I was at the place appointed;" “ I shall be at Paris.” We likewise say: touched, arrived at any place." The preposition in is set before countries, cities, and large towns; as, “ He lives in France, in London, or in Birmingham." But before villages, single houses, and cities which are in distant countries, at is used; as, “ He lives at Hackney;" " He resides at Montpelier.”

It is a matter of indifference with respect to the pronoun one another, whether the preposition of be placed between the two parts of it, or before them both.

We may say, They were jealous of one another;" or, “They were jealous one of another;"" but perhaps the former is better.

Participles are frequently used as prepositions : as, excepting, respecting, touching, concerning, according

They were all in fault except or excepting him.”

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RULE XVIII. Conjunctions connect the same moods and tenses of verbs, and cases of nouns and pronouns: as,

« Candour

is to be approved ana practised :" “ If thou sincerely desire, and earnestly pursue virtue, she will assuredly be found by thee, and prove a rich reward;" “ The master taught her and me to write;" “ He and she were school fellows."*

A few examples of inaccuracy respecting this rule may further display its utility. “If he prefer a virtuous life, and is sincere in his professions, he will succeed ;" “ if ke prefers." "To deride the miseries of the unhappy, is inhuman; and wanting compassion towards them, is unchristian;" "and to want compassion.” “ The parliament addressed the king, and has been prorogued the same day;?"

;! “ and was prorogucd.” “ His wealth and him bid adieu to each other;? ?" and he.” “ He entreated us, my comrade and I, to live harmoniously;" "comrade and me." "My sister and her were on good terms ;" " and she. “We often overlook the blessings which are in our possession, and are searching after those which are out of our reach:” it ought to be," and search after."

1. Conjunctions are, indeed, frequently made to connect different moods and tenses of verbs: but in these instances the nominative must generally, if not always, be repeated, which is not necessary, though it may be done, under the construction to which the rule-refers.. We may say, “ He lives temperately, and he should live temperately;" “He may return, but he will not continue ;"** “ She was proud, though she is now humble :" but it is obvious, that in such cases, the nominative ought to be repeated ; and that, by this means, the latter members of these sentences are rendered not so strictly dependent on the preceding, as those are which come under the rule. When, in the progress a sentence, we pass from the affirmative to the negative form, or from the negative to the affirmative, the subject or nominative is always resumed : as, “ He is rich, but he is not respectable." ** He is not rich, but he is respectable." There appears to be, in general, equal reason for repeating the nominative, and resuming the subject, when the course of the sentence is diverted by a change of the

of

* This rule refers only to nouns and pronouns, which have the same bearing w relation, with regard to other parts of the sentence.

mood or tense. The following sentences may therefore be improved. “ Anger glances into the breast of a wise man, but will rest only in the bosom of fools ;" " but rests only ;" or, “but it will rest only.“ Virtue is praised by many, and would be desired also, if her worth were really known;"! " and she would.” “ The world begins to recede, and will soon disappear;" "and it will." See the Octavo Grammar, RULE XVIII.

RULE XIX.

Some conjunctions require the indicative, some the subjunctive mood, after them. It is a general rule, that when something contingent or doubtful is implied, the subjunctive ought to be used: as, If I were to write, he would not regard it ;"? “ He will not be pardoned, unless he repent.

Conjunctions that are of a positive and absolute nature require the indicative mood. " As virtue advances, O vice recedes :" " He is healthy, because he is tempeate.'

The conjunctions, if, though, unless, except, whether, &c. generally require the subjunctive mood after them: as, "If thou be afflicted, repine not;"? " Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him;" “ He cannot be clean, unless he wash himself;" “ No power, except it were given from above;"> Whether it were I or they, so we preach.” But even these conjunctions, when the sentence does not imply doubt, admit of the indicative : as, “ Though he is poor, he is contented."-See subjunctive mood, p. 68, and pages 183, 184.

The following example may, in some measure, serve to illustrate the distinction between the subjunctive and the indicative moods. “Though he were divinely inspired, and spoke therefore as the oracles of God, with supreme authority; though he were endued with supernatural powers, and could, therefore, have confirmed the truth of what he uttered, by miracles ; yet, in compliance with the way in which human nature and reasonable creatures are usually wrought upon, he reasoned.” That our Saviour was diFinely inspired, and endued with supernatural powers, are

66

rich,

yet for

positions that are here taken for granted, as not admitting the least doubt; they would therefore have been better expressed in the indicative mood : “ Though he was divinely inspired; though he was endued with supernatural powers. The subjunctive is used in the like improper manner in the following example : Though he were a son, yet learned he obedience, by the things which he suffered." But, in a similar passage, the indicative, with great propriety, is employed to the same purpose ; Though he was

your

sakes he became poor." 1. Lest, and that, annexed to a command preceding, necessarily require the subjunctive mood: as, “Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty;" Reprove not a scorn.“ er, lest he hate thee ;" “ Take heed that thou speak not to Jarob."

If with but following it, when futurity is denoted, requires the subjunctive mood : as, If he do but touch the hills, they shall smoke;" “ If he be but discreet, he will succeed.” But the indicative ought to be used, on this occasion, when future time is not signified: as, If, in this expression, he does but jest, no offence should be taken;"

if she is but sincere, i am happy.” The same distinction applies to the following forms of expression : "If he do submit

, it will be from necessity;" " Though he does submit, he is not convinced ;" " If thou do not reward this service, he will be discouraged ;" “ If thou dost heartily forgive him, endeavour to forget the offence.'

2. In the following instances, the conjunction that, expressed or understood, seems to be improperly accompapied with the subjunctive mood. " So much she dreaded his tyranny, that the fate of her friend she dare not lament." “ He reasoned so artfully that his friends would listen, and think [that] he were not wrong."

3. 'I'he same conjunction governing both the indicative and the subjunctive moods, in the same sentence, and in the same circumstances, seems to be a great impropriety: as in these instances. “If there be but one body of legislators, it is no better than a tyranny; if there are noly two, there will want a casting voice.” If a man hate å hundred sheep, and one of them is

one astray," &c. 4. Almost all the irregularities, in the construction of any language, hare arisen from the ellipsis of some words,

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