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9. Some conjunctions have correspondent conjunctions belonging to them, either expressed or understood. as,

1st, Though,—yet, nevertheless : as, Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor.” “ Though pow erful, he was meek.” 2d, Whether.or: as,

" Whether he will go or not, I cannot tell."

3d, Eitheror: as, &" I will either send it, or bring it myself.”

4th, Neither-nor: as, “ Neither he nor I am able to

compass it."

5th, As--as: expressing a comparison of equality : as “ She is as amiable as her sister; and as much respected.”

6th, As-so: expressing a comparison of equality : as, " As the stars, so shall thy seed be.”

7th, As--so: expressing a comparison of quality : as, As the one dieth, so dieth the other."

“ As he reads, they read."

8th, So-as: with a verb expressing a comparison of quality: as, To see thy glory, so as I have seen thee in the sanctuary."

9th, So-s: with a negative and an adjective expressing a comparison of quantity: as, “ Pompey was not so great a general as Cæsar, nor so great a man.” 10th, So-that: expressing a consequence: as,

He was so fatigued, that he could scarcely move."

The conjunctions or and nor may often be used, with nearly equal propriety. “The king, whose character was not sufliciently vigorous, nor decisive, assented to the measure." In this sentence, or would perhaps have been better: but, in general, ñor seems to repeat the negation in the former part of the sentence, and there. fore gives more emphasis to the expression.

10. Conjunctions are often inproperly used, both singly ard in pairs. The following are examples of this impropriety. “ The relations are so uncertain, as that they require a great deal of examination :" it should be, they require," &c. “ There was no man so sanguine,

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suc junctive, and of not referring to the indicative mood forms of expression, which ill accord with its simplicity and nature. Perhaps this theory will bear a strict examination.


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who did not apprehend some ill consequences :" it ought 10 be, “so sanguine as not to apprehend,” &c.; or, man, how sanguine soever, who did not,” &c. trust in him is no more but to acknowledge his power." " This is no other but the gate of paradise.' In both these instances, but should be than. 66 We should sufficiently weigh the objects of our hope ; whether they are such as we may reasonably expect from them what they propose," &c. It ought to be, " that we may reasonably," &c. “ The duke had not behaved with that loyalty as he ought to have done;" "with which he ought." the order as they lie in his preface :" it should be,“ in order as they lie;" or, " in the order in which they lie." “ Such sharp replies that cost him his life ;" as cost him,” &c. “ If he were truly that scarecrow, as he is now commonly painted;" " such a scarecrow," &c. “I wish I could do that justice to his memory, to oblige the painters," &c.; " do such justice as to oblige,"&c.

There is a peculiar neatness in a sentence beginning with the conjunctive form of a verb. “ Were there no difference, there would be no choice."

A double conjunctive, in two correspondent clauses of a sentence, is sometimes made use of : as, " had he done this, he had escaped ;” “ Had the limitations on the prerogative been, in his time, quite fixed and certain, his integrity has made him regard as sacred, the boundaries of the constitution.” The ence in the common form would have read thus : “ If the limitations on the prerogative had been, &c. his integrity would have made him regard," &c.

The particle as, when it is connected with the pronoun such, has the force of a relative pronoun: as,

" Let such Ons presume to advise others, look well to their own conduct ;” which is equivalent to, “ Let thein who presume,' &c. But when used by itself, this particle is to be considered as a conjunction or perhaps as an adverb. See the Key.

Our language wants a conjunction adapted to familiar style, equivalent to "twithstanding. The words for ale that, seem to be too low. - The word was in the mouta

of every one, but, for all that, the subject may still be a secret.

In regard that is solemn and antiquated; because would do much better in the following sentence. " It cannot be otherwise, in regard that the French prosody differs from that of every other language.”

The word except is far preferable to other than. admitted of no effectual cure other than amputation.” Except is also to be preferred to all but. “ They were happy all but the stranger."

In the two following phrases, the conjunction as is improperly omitted; "Which nobody presumes, or is so sanguine to hope.” I must, however, be so just a to

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The conjunction that is often properly omitted, and un. derstood; as,

I beg you would come to me ;" “ See thou do it not;" instead of “that you would,'

»« that thou do." But in the following and many similar phrases, this conjunction were much better inserted : Yet it is reason the memory of their virtues remain to posterity." It should be, " yet it is just that the memory," &c.

I am.


RULE XX. When the qualities of different things are compared, the latter noun or pronoun is not governed by the conjunction than or as, but agrees with the verb, or is governed by the verb or the preposition, expressed or understood : as,

“ Thou art wiser than 1;" that is, “than

They loved him more than me;" i. e. than they loved me.” “The sentiment is well expressed by Plato, but much better by Solomon than him;" that is, “ than by him."*

The propriety o impropriety of many phrases, in the preceding as well as in some other forms, may be discovered, by supplying the words that are not expressed ; which will be evident from the following instances of erroneous construction. “ He can read better than me.” " He is as good as her.” “ Whether I be present or no.” “Who did this ? Me." By supplying the words understood in * See the Tenth, or any subsequent, edition of the Key; Rule xx. The Note

as she

each of these phrases, their impropriety and governing sule will appear : as, “ Better than I can read;"“ As good

is ;'

;"?“ Present or not present ;" “ I did it." 1 By not attending to this rule, many errors have been committed : a number of which is subjoined, as a further caution and direction to the learner. " Thou art a inuch greater loser than me by his death.” “ She suffers hourly more than me." 66 We contributed a third more than the Dutch, who were obliged to the same proportion more than us.” “King Charles, and more than him, the duke and the popish faction, were at liberty to form new schemes.!? " The drift of all his sermons was, to prepare the Jews for the reception of a prophet mightier than him, and whose shoes he was not worthy to bear." “ It was not the work of so eminent an author, as him to whom it was first imputed.”. “ A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty ; but a fool's wrath is heavier than them both.” "If the king give us leave, we may perform the office as well as them that do.” In these passages it ought to be, I, we, he, they, respectively.”

When the relative who immediately follows than, it seems to form an exception to the 20th rule ; for in that connexion, the relative must be in the objective case ; as, “ Alfred, than whom, a greater king never reigned,” &c. “Beelzebub, than whom, Satan excepted, none higher sat,” &c.

It is remarkable that in such instances, if the personal pronoun were used, it would be in the nomina. tive case ; as,


greater king never reigned than he,' that is, “ than he was. Beelzebub, than he,&c. ; that is, " than he sat." The phrase than whom, is, however, aroided by the best modern writers.

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RULE XXI. To avoid disagreeable repetitions, and to express our ideas in few words, an ellipsis, or omission of some words, is frequently admitted. Instead of saying, "He was a learned man, he was a wise man, and he was a good man;" we make use of the ellipsis, and say, was a learned, wise, and good man.

When the omission of words would obscure the sentence, weaken its force, or be attended with an iro

66 He

and a

propriety, they must be expressed.

In the sentence, 6. We are apt to love who love us,” the word them should be supplied. “A beautiful field and trees,” is uot proper language. It should be, “ Beautiful fields and trees;" or," A beautiful field and fine trees.”

Almost all compounded sentences are more or less elliptical; some examples of which may be seen under the different parts of speech.

1. The ellipsis of the article is thus used; “ A man, woman, and child :" that is, a man, a woman, child." A house and garden ;'' that is, a house and a garden.” "The sun and moon;" that is, us the sun and the moon." “ The day and hour;" that is, “the day and the hour.” In all these instances, the article being once expressed, the repetition of it becomes unnecessary. There is, however, an exception to this observation, when some peculiar emphasis requires a repetition ; as in the following sentence. “ Not only the year, but the day and the hour." In this case, the ellipsis of the last article would be improper. When a different form of the article is requisite, the article is also properly repeated : as, a house and an orchard;" instead of, a house and orchard." 2. The noun is frequently omitted in the following man.

“ The laws of God and man;" that is," the laws of God and the laws of man.” In some very emphatical ex. pressions, the ellipsis should not be used : as,

is Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God;" which is more emphatical than, “ Christ the power and wisdom of God.'' 3. The ellipsis of the adjective is used in the following

A delightful garden and orchard;" that is, " a delightful garden and a delightful orchard;" "A little man and woman;" that is, " A little man and a little woman." In such elliptical expressions as these, the adjective ought to have exactly the same signification, and to be quite as proper, when joined to the latter substantive as to the former; otherwise the ellipsis should not be admitted.

Sometimes the ellipsis is improperly applied to nouns of different numbers: as, " A magnificent house and gar



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