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dens." In this case it is better to use another adjective; as, “ A magnificent house and tine gardens."
4. The following is the ellipsis of the pronoun. "I love and fear him ;" that is, “I love him, and I fear him.” My house and lands;" that is, “
house and my lands.” In these instances the ellipsis may take place with propriety ; but if we would be more express and em. phatical, it must not be used : 'as, “ His friends and his coes ;" “ My sons and my daughters.”
In some of the common forms of speech, the relative pronoun is usually omitted : as, “ This is the man they love ;" instead of, “ This is the man whom they love." " These are the goods they bought;" for, " These are the goods which they bought."
In complex sentences, it is much better to have the re. lative pronoun expressed: as it is more proper to say, “ The posture in which I lay,” than, “ In the posture I
's The horse on which I rode, fell down;" thao : The horse I rode, fell down."
The antecedent and the relative connect the parts of a sentence together, and, to prevent obscurity and confu. sion, should answer to each othsr with great exactness. "We speak that we do know, and testify that we have veen."
Here the ellipsis is manifestly improper, and nught to be supplied: 'as, “ We speak that which we do know, and testify that which we have seen."
5. The ellipsis of the verb is used in the following instances. " The man was old and crafty;" that is, the man was old, and the man was crafty."
" She was young, and beautiful, and good;" that is, She was young, she was beautiful, and she was good. “Thon art poor, and wretched, and miserable, and blind, and naked." If we would fill up the ellipsis in the last sentence, thou art ought to be repeated before each of the adjectives.
If, in such enumeration, we choose to point out one pro. perty above the rest, that property must be placed last, and the ellipsis supplied: as, “She is young and beautiful, and she is good."
“ I went to see and hear him ;' that is, “ I went to see and I went to hear him.” In this instance there is not only an ellipsis of the governing verb I went, but likewise of the sign of the infinitive mood, which is governed by it.
Do, did, have, had, shall, will, may, might, and the rest of the auxiliaries of the compound tenses, are frequently used alone, to spare the repetition of the verb: as, regards his word, but thou dost not:" i. e. “ dost not regard it.” “We succeeded, but they did not ;" “ did no succeed." “I have learned my task, but thou hast not;' " hast not learned." " They must, and they shall be pan. ished;" that is, “they must be punished.” See the Key. 6. The ellipsis of the adverb is used in the following
“ He spoke and acted wisely;" that is, “ He spoke wisely, and he acted wisely.” “ Thrice I went and offered my service ;" that is, " Thrice I went, and thrice I offered my service."
7. The ellipsis of the preposition, as well as of the verb is seen in the following instances : " He went into the ab beys, halls, and public buildings; that is, “ he went into the abbeys, he went into the halls, and he went into the public buildings.” “ He also went through all the streets and lanes of the city ;" that is, " Through all the streets, and through all the lanes,” &c. “ He spoke to every man and woman there," that is, “ to every man and to every woman.” “ This day, next month, fast year;" that is, this day, in the next month, in the last year;" “ The Lord do that which seemeth him good ;” that is,
it which seemeth to him.”
8. The ellipsis of the conjunction is as follows: "They confess the power, wisdom, goodness, and love, of their Creator ;” i. e.“ the power, and wisdom, and goodness, and love of,” &c. “ Though I love him, I do not flatter him," that is, “Though I love him, yet I do not flatter him."
9. The ellipsis of the interjection is not very common; it, however, is sometimes used: as, “Oh! pity and shame !" that is, “Oh pity! Oh shame !!!
As the ellipsis occurs in almost every sentence in the English langtiage, numerous examples of it might be given; but only a few more can be admitted here.
In the following instance there is a very considerable one : “He will often argue, that if this part of our trade were well cultivated, we should gain from one nation; and if another, from another;' that is, “ He will often argue,
that if this part of our trade were well cultivated,
we should gain from one nation, and if another part of our trade were well cultivated, we should gain from another nation."
The following instances, though short, contain much of the ellipsis ;" Wo is me;" i. e. wo is to me.” “ To let blood;" i. e.“ to let out blood.” “ To let down ;"
“ to let it fall or side down.” 66 To walk a mile ;"> j. e. “ to walk through the space of a mile.” “ To sleep all night;" i. e.“ To sleep through all the night." " To go a fishing ;' “ To go a hunting ;" i.e.“ to go on a fishing voyage or business ;” s to go on a hunting party." “I dine at two o'clock :" i. e. "at two of the clock.” "By sea, by land, on shore :" i. e. “By the sea, by the land, on the shore.”
10. The examples that follow are produced to show the impropriety of cllipsis in some particular cases, “The land was always possessed, during pleasure, by those intrusted with the command;" it should be, “those persons intrusted;" or, “ those who were intrusted.” “If he had read further, he would have found several of his objections might have been spared :" that is, “ he would liave found that several of his objections,” &c. There is nothing men are more deficient in, than knowing their own characters.” It ought to be, “nothing in which men;" and, “ than in knowing.' “ I scarcely know any part of natu ral philosophy would yield more variety and use ;" it should be, to which would yield,” &c. “ In the temper of mind he was then ;' i. e. “in which he then was. little satisfaction and consistency, to be found in most of the systems of divinity I have met with, made me betake myself to the sole reading of the Scriptures :" it ought to be, "vehich are to be found," and, so which I have met with.” “ He desired they might go to the altar together, and jointly return their thanks to whom only they were due;" i. e. “to him to whom,” &c.
RULE XXII. All the parts of a sentence should correspond to each other : a regular and dependent construction, through. out, should be carefully preserved. The following sen tence is therefore inaccurate : “ He was more beloved,
but not so much admired, as Cinthio." It should be, “ He was more beloved than Cinthio, but not so much admired.”
The first example under this rule, presents a most irregular construction, namely,“ He was more beloved as Cinthio." The words more and so much, are very improperly stated as having the same regimen. In correcting such sentences, it is not necessary to supply the latter ellipsis, becauen it cannot lead to any discordant or improper construction, and the supply would often be harsh or inele. gant. See p. 185.
As the 22d Rule comprehends all the preceding rules, it may, at the tirst view, appear to be too general to be useful. But by ranging under it a number of sentences peculiarly constructed, we shall perceive, that it is calculated tg ascertain the true grammatical construction of many modes of expression, which none of the particular rules can sufficiently explain.
“ This dedication may serve for almost any book, that has, is, or shall be published.” It ought to be," that has been, or shall be published.” “He was guided by interests always different, sometimes cootrary to, those of the com munity;" “ different from ;" or, “always different from those of the community, and sometimes contrary to them.” “ Will it be urged that these books are as old, or even older than tradition ?” The words, as old,” and “older," capnot have a common regimen ; it should be “as old as tradition, or even older.” “ It requires few talents to which most men are not born, or at least may not acquire;" “ or which, at least they may not acquire."
The court of chancery frequently mitigates and breaks the teeth of the common law.” In this construction, the first verb is said, “ to mitigate the teeth of the common law,” which is an evident solecism. " Mitigates the common law, and breaks the teeth of it," would have been grammatical.
“ They presently grow into good humour, and good language towards the crown;" grow into good language," is very improper. “There is never wanting a set of evil instruments, who either out of mad zeal, private hatred, or lilthy lucre, are always ready,' &c. Wes properly,
adverbs, and those such as are hardly consie van degen.
BE A man acts out of mad zeal,” or, " out of private batred;" but we cannot say, if we would speak English, “ he acts out of filthy lucre.” “ To double her kindness and caresses of me;" the word “ kindness” requires to be followed by either to or for, and cannot be construed with the preposition of “ Never was man so teased, or suffered half the uneasiness, as I have done this evening :" the first and third clauses, viz. “Never was man so teased, as I have done this evening,” cannot be joined without an impropriety; and to connect the second and third, the word that must be substituted for as ; " Or suffered half the uneasiness that I have done ;" or else, “ half so much uneasiness as I have suffered.”
The first part of the following sentence abounds with
another: “ How much soeper the reformation erate age is almost utterly to be despaired of, we may yet have a more comfortable prospect of future times." The sentence would be more correct in the following form: “ Though the reformation of this degenerate age is nearly to be despaired of, &c. “Oh! shut not up my soul with the sinners, normy
life with the blood-thirsty ; in whose hands is wickedness, and their right-hand is full of gifts.” As the passage, introdueed by the copulative conjunction and, was not intended as a continuation of the principal and independent part of the sentence, but of the dependent part, the relative whose should have been used instead of the possessive their; viz. “ and whose right-hand is full of gifts."
Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him." There seems to be an impropriety in this instance, in which the same noup serves in a double capacity, performing at the same time the offices both of the nominative and objective cases.
“ Neither hath it entered into the heart of man, to conceive the things,” &c. would have been regular.
“We have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding, those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision.” It is very proper to say, “altering and compounding those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and