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nally heard in pronouncing the words whici contain them Though this is not the case at present, with respect to inany of them, these combinations still retain the name of diphthongs ; but, to distinguish them, they are marked by the term improper. As the diphthong derives its name and nature from its sound, and no: from its letters, and properly denotes a double vowel sound, no union of two vowels, where one is silent, can, in strictness, be entitled to that appellation; and the single letters i and u, when pronounced long, must, in this view, be considered as diphthongs. The triphthongs, having at most but two sounds, are merely ocular, and are, therefore, by some grammarians, classed with the diphthongs.

SECTION 2. General observations on the sounds of

the letters.

A A has four sounds ; the long or slender; the broad, the sbort or open, and the middle.

The long; as in name, basin, creation.
The broad; as in call, wall, all..
The short ;- as in barrel, fancy, glass.
The middle ; as in far, farm, father.

The diphthong aa generally sounds like a short in proper names; as in Balaam, Canaan, Isaac; but not in Baal, Gaal.

Ae has the sound of long e. It is sometimes found in Latin words. Some authors retain this form; as, ænigma, æquator, &c.; but others have laid it aside, and write enigma, Cesar, Eneas, &c.

The diphthong ai has exactly the long slender sound of , as in pail, tail, &c.; pronounced pale, tale, &c. : except plaid, again, raillery, fountain, Britain, and a few others.

Au is generally sounded like the broad a : as in taught, caught, &c. Sometimes like the short or open a; as in aunt, flaunt, gauntlet, &c. It has the sound of long o in hautboy; and that of o short in laurel, laudanum, &c.

Aw has always the sound of broad a; as in bawl, scrawl, crawl.

Ay, like its near relation ar, is pronounced like the long blender sound of a ; as in pay, day delay.

B B keeps one unvaried sound, at the beginning, middle, and end of words ; as in baker, number, rhubarb, &c.

In some words it is silent; as in thumb, debtor, subtle, Sc. In others, besides being silent, it lengthens the syl lable, as in climb, comb, tomb.

с C has wo different sounds.

A hard sound like k, before a, o, u, r, l,t; as in cart, cottage, curious, craft, tract, cloth, &c.; and when it ends a syllable ; as in victim, flaccid.

A soft sound like s before e, i, and y, generally; as in centre, face, civil, cymbal, mercy, &c. It has sometimes the sound of sh ; 'as in ocean, social.

C is mute in czar, czarina, victuals, &c.

C, says Dr. Johnson, according to English orthography, never ends a word; and therefore we find in our best dictionaries, stick, block, publick, politick, &c. But many writers of latter years omit the k in words of two or more syllables; and this practice is gaining ground, though it is productive of irregularities ; such as writing mimic and mimickry; traffic and trafficking.

Ch is commonly sounded like tch; as in church, chin, chaff, charter : but in words derived from the Greek, has the sound of k; as in chymist, scheme, chorus, chyle, distich; and in foreign names; as, Achish, Baruch, Enoch, &c.

Ch, in some words derived from the French, takes the sound of sh; as in chaise, chagrin, chevalier, machine.

Ch in arch, before a vowel, sounds like k; as in arch. angel, archives, Archipelago ; except in arched, archery, archer, and arch-enemy: but before a consonant it always sounds like tch ; as in archbishop, archduke, archpresbyter, &c. Ck is silent in schedule, schism, and yacht.

D D keeps one uniform sound, at the beginning, middle, and end of words; as in death, bandage, kindred; unless it may be said to take the sound of t, in stuffed, tripped, &c. stuft, tript, &c.

E has three different sounds.
A long sound; as in scheme, glebe, severe, pulley

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A short sound; as in men, bed, clemency.

An obscure and scarcely perceptible sound; as, open, lucre, participle.

It has sometimes the sound of middle a; as in clerk, serjeant; and sometimes that of short i ; as in England, yes, pretty.

E is always mute at the end of a word, except in monosyllables that have no other vowel; as, me, he, she : or in substantives derived from the Greek; as, catastrophe, epitome, Penelope. It is used to soften and modify the foregoing consonants ; as, force, rage, since, oblige: or to lengthen the preceding vowel; as, can, cane ; pin, pine ; rob, robe.

The diphthong ea is generally sounded like e long; as in appear, beaver, creature, &c. It has also the sound of short e; as in breath, meadow, treasure. And it is sometimes prenounced like the long and slender a ; as in bear, break, great.

Eau has the sound of longo; as in beau, flambeau, portmanteau In beauty and its compounds, it has the sound of long u.

Ei, in general, sounds the same as long and slender a; as in deign, vein, neighbour, &c. It has the sound of long e in seize, deceit, receive, either, neither, &c. It is sometimes pronounced like shorti; as in foreign, forfeit, sovereign, &c.

Eo is pronounced like e long; as in people, and sometimes like e short; as in leopard, jeopardy. It has also the sound of short u; as in dungeon, sturgeon, puncheon, &c.

Eu is always sounded like long u or ew; as in feud, deuce.

Ew is almost always pronounced like long u; as in few,

Ey, when the accent is on it, is always pronounced like re long; as in bey, grey, convey; except in key, ley, where it is sounded like long e.

When this diphthong is unaccented, it takes the sound of e long; as, alley, valley, barley:

new, dew.

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F keeps one pure unvaried sound at the beginning, middle, and end of words; as, fåncy, muffin, mischiet, &c. . except in of, in which it has the flat sound of ov; but not in composition; as, wbereof thereof, &c. We should not

Prene, &c.

pronounce, a vive's jointure, a calve's head; but a wife's jointure, a calf's head.

G G has two sounds: one hard; as in gay, go, gun: the other soft ; as in gem, giant.

At the end of a word it is always hard ; as in bag, snug, frog. It is hard before a, o, u, l, and r; as, game, gone, gull, glory, grandeur.

G before e, i, and y, is soft; as in genius, gesture, ginger, Egypt; except in get, gewgaw, finger, craggy, and some others.

G is mute before n; as in gnash, sign, foreign, &c.

Gn, at the end of a word, or syllable accented, gives the preceding vowel a long sound; as in resign, impugn, oppugn, impregn, impugned; pronounced impune, im

Gh, at the beginning of a word, has the sound of the hard g; as, ghost, ghastly : in the middle, and sometimes at the end, it is quite silent; as in right, high, plough, mighty:

At the end it has often the sound of f; as in laugh, cough, tough. Sometimes only the g is sounded; as in burgh, burgher.

H The sound signified by this letter, is, as before observed, an articulate sound, and not merely an aspiration. It is heard in the words, hat, horse, Hull. It is seldom mute at the beginning of a word. It is always silent after r; as, rhetoric, rheum, rhubarb.

H final, preceded by a vowel, is always silent; as, ah! bah! oh! foh! Sarah, Messiah.

From the faintness of the sound of this letter, in many words, and its total silence in others, added to the negligence of tutors, and the inattention of pupils, it has happened, that many persons have become almost incapable of acquiring its just and full pronunciation. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers, to be particularly careful to inculcate a clear and distinct utterance of this sound.

I I has a long sound; as in fine: and a short óne; as in fin.

The long sound is always marked by the e final in monosyllables : as thin, thine ; except give, live. Before r it is

often sounded like a short u; as flirt, first. In some words it has the sound of e long; as in machine, bombazine, magrazine.

The diphthong ia is frequently sounded like ya ; as in christian, filial, poniard.; pronounced christ-yan, &c. It has sometimes the sound of short i ; as in carriage, marriage, parliament.

le sounds in general like e long; as in grief, thief, grenadier. It has also the sound of long i ; as in die, pie, lie: and sometimes that of short i ; as in sieve.

Icu has the sound of long u; as in lieu, adieu, purlieu.

Io, when the accent is upon the first vowel, forms two distinct syllables ; as, priory, violet, violent. The terminations tion and sion, are sounded exactly like the word shun ; except when the t is preceded by s or x; as in uestion, digestion, combustion, mixtion, &c.

The triphthong iou is sometimes pronounced distinctly in [.wo syllables; as in bilious, various, abstemious. But these vowels often coalesce into one syllable ; as in pro cious, factious, noxious.

J J is pronounced exactly like soft g; except in hallela jah, where it is pronounced like y.

K K has the sound of c hard, and is used before e and i, where, according to English analogy, c would be soft; as, kept, king, skirts. It is not sounded before n; as in knife, knel, knocker. It is never doubled, except in Habakkuk; but c is used before it, to shorten the vowel by a double consonant; as, cockle, pickle, sucker.

L L has always a soft liquid sound; as in love, billow, quarrel. It is sometimes mute ; as in half, talk, psalmu The custom is to double the lat the end of monosyllables; as, mill, will, fall; except where a diphthong precedes it; as, hail, toil, soil.

Le, at the end of words, is pronounced like a weak el ; in which the e is almost mute; as, table, shuttle.

M has always the same sound; as, murmur,

monumental; except in comptroller, which is pronounced controller.

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