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This seems to be the longest Trochaic line that our language admits.

in all these Trochaic measures, the accent is to be placed on the odd syllables.

The DACTYLIC measure being very uncommon, we shall give only one example of one species of it:

From thě lõw pléasúres of this fållěn nåtūre,

Rise we to higher, &c. ANAPÆSTIC verses are divided into several species

1. The shortest anapæstic verse must be a single apa. pæst: as,

Būt în väin,

They complain. This measure is, however, ambiguous ; for, by laying the stress of the voice on the first and third syllables, we might make a trochaic. And therefore the first and simplest form of our genuine Anapæstic verse, is made up of two Anapasts: as,

Bit his courăge 'găn fail,

For no arts could avail.
This form admits of an additional short syllable.

Then his cõurăge gắn fail him,

For no arts could avail him.
2. The second species consists of three Anapæsts.
> yě woods, sprčad your brānchěs åpāce;

To your deepest recesses I fly;
I would hide with the beasts of the chace ;

I would vanish from every eye. This is a very pleasing measure, and much used, bot: in solemn and cheerful subjects.

3. The third kind of the English Anapæstic, consists of four Anapæsts.

Máy I gövěrn my passions with ābsolūte sway;

And grow wiser and better as life wears away. This measure will admit of a short syllable at the end. as, on thě wārm chèek of youth, smiles ånd rõsés áre


P fo

The preceding are the different kinds of the principal feet, in their more simple forms. They are capable of numerous variations, by the intermixture of those feet with each other; and by the admission of the secondary feet.

We have observed, that English verse is composed of feet formed by accent; and that when the accent falls on vowels, the feet are equivalent to those formed by quan. lity. That the student may clearly perceive this difference, we shall produce a specimen of each kind.

O'ěr bēaps of rūíns stālk'd the stately hind. Here we see the accent is upon the vowel in each se. cond syllable. In the following line, we shall find the game lambic movement, but formed by accent en consopants, except the last syllable.

Then rústling, crackling, crashing thủnder down. Here the time of the short accented syllables, is compensated by a short pause; at the end of each word to which they belong.

We now proceed to show the manner in which poetry is varied and improved, by the admission of secondary leet into its composition.

Múrmuring, and with him fled the shades of night.
The first foot here is a Dactyl; the rest are lambics.

O'er many ă frozen, mány a fiery Alp.
This line contains three Amphibrachs mixed with lambics.

Innůměrăblě before th' Almighty's throne.
Here, in the second foot, we find a Tribrach.

See the bold youth strain up the threatoning steep.

In this line, the first foot is a Trochee; the second a genuine Spondee by quantity; the third a Spondee by accent.

In the following line, the first foot is a Pyrrhic, the second a Spondee.

That on weak wings from far pursues your fight. From the preceding view of English versification, w may see what a copious stock of materials it possesses. For we are not only allowed the use of all the ancient

poetic feet, in our heroic measure, but we have, as before observed, duplicates of each, agreeing in movement, though differing in measure,* and which make different impressions on the ear; an opulence peculiar to our language, and which may be the source of a boundless Yariety.


There are two sorts of pauses, one for sense, and one for melody, perfectly distinct from each other. The former may be called sentential, the latter harinonic pauses.

The sentential pauses are those which are known to us by the name of stops, and which have names given them; as the comma, semicolon, colon, and period.

The harmonic pauses may be subdivided into the final pause, and the cæsural pause. These sometimes coincide with the sentential pause, sometimes have an independent state, that is, exist where there is no stop in the sense.

The final pause takes place at the end of the line, closes the verse, and marks the measure : the cæsural divides it into equal or unequal parts.

The final pause preserves the melody, without interfering with the sense. For the pause itself perfectly marks the bound of the metre ; and being made only by a suspension of the voice, not by any change of pote, it can never affect the sense. This is not the only advan. tage gained to numbers, by this final pause or stop of suspension. It also prevents that monotony, that sameness of note at the end of lines, which, however pleasing to a rude, is disgusting to a delicate ear. '- For as this final pause has no peculiar note of its own, but always takes that which belongs to the preceding word, it changes continually with the matter, and is as various as the sense.

It is the final pause which alone, on many occasions, marks the difference between prose and verse ; which will be evident from the following arrangement of a tew poetical lines.

* Movement and measure are thus distinguishet. Monement expresses the progressive order of sounds, whether from strorig to weak, froin long to short, or vice versa. Measure signifies the proportion of time, botla in sounds and pauses.

Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit of that for. bidden tree, whose mortal taste brought death into the world, and all our wo, with loss of Eden, till one greater mau restore us, and regain the blissful seat, sing heavenly muse!"

A stranger to the poem would not easily discover that this was verse ; but would take it for poetical prose. By properly adjusting the final pause, we shall restore the passage to its true state of verse.

Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
Brought death into the world, and all our wo,
With loss of Eden, till one greater man
Restore us, and regain the blissful seat,

Sing, heavenly muse! These examples show the necessity of reading blank verse, in such a manner, as to make every line sensible to the ear ; for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if, in reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause; and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose ?

The Cæsura is commonly on the fourth, fifth, or sixth syllable of heroic verse

On the fourth syllable, or at the end of the second foot: as,

The silver eel" in shining volumes rollid,

The yellow carp" in scales bedropp'd with gold. On the Gifth syllable, or in the middle of the third foot:


Round broken columns" clasping ivy twin'd,

O'er heaps of ruin" stalk'd the stately hind. On the sixth syllable, or at the end of the third foot: as,

Oh say what stranger cause" yet unexplor'd,

Could make a gentle belle" reject a lord. A line may be divided into three portions, by two cæsuras : as,

Outstretch'd he lay" on the cold ground" and oft"! Look'd up to heav'n. There is another mode of dividing lines, well suited to the nature of the couplet, by introducing semi-pauses,

which divide the line into four pauses. This semi-pause
may be called a demi-cæsura.
The following lines admit of, and exemplify it.

Glows' while he reads" but trembles as he writes.
Reason the card" but passion' is the gale.
Rides' in the whirlwind" and directs' the storm.

OF MELODY, HARMONY, AND EXPRESSION. Having shown the general nature of feet and pauses, the constituent parts of verse, we shall now point out more particularly, their use and importance.

Melody, harmony, and expression, are the three great objects of poetic numbers. By melody, is meant, a pleasing effect produced on the ear, from an apt arrangement of the constituent parts of verse, according to the laws of measure and movement. By harmony, an effect produced by an action of the mind, in comparing the different members of a verse with each other, and perceiving a due and beautiful proportion between them. By expression, such a choice and arrangement of the constituent parts of verse, as serye to enforce and illustrate the thought or the sentiment.

We shall consider each of these three objects in versi fication, both with respect to the feet and the pauses.

1st. With regard to melody:

From the examples which we have given of verses composed in all the principal feet, it is evident that a considerable portion of melody is found in each of them, though in different degrees. Verses made


pure lambics have an excellent melody.

That the final and cæsural pauses contribute to melody, cannot be doubted by any person who reviews the instances which we have already given of those pauses. To form lines of the first melody, the cæsura must be at the end of the second, or of the third foot, or in the middle of the third.

2d, With respect to harmony.

Verses composed of lambics have indeed a fine hår. mony; but as the stress of the voice, in repeating such verses, is always in the same places, that is, on every second syllable, such a uniformit; would disgust the ear

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