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in a long succession; and therefore such changes were sought for, as might introduce the pleasure of variety, without prejudice to melody; or which might even contribute to its improvement. Of this nature was the introduction of the Trochee, to form the first foot of an heroic verse : as,
Fävoŭrs to none, to all shě smiles exténds,
O'st she rejècts, but never once offends. Each of these lines begins with a Trochee; the remaining feet are in the lambic movement. In the following line of the same movement, the fourth foot is a Trochee.
Ăll these our notions vāin, sēes ånd děrides. The next change admitted for the sake of variety, without prejudice to melody, is the intermixture of Pyrrhics and Spondees ; in which, two impressions in the one foot make up for the want of one in the other; and two long syllables compensate two short ones, so as to make the sum of the quantity of the two feet, equal to two lambics.
On thế grēen bānk to look into thě clear
Stood ruld stood văst infinitūde confin'd.
Which many ắ bird had chauntëd many & dãy. In this line, we find that two of the feet are Amphibrachs; and three, Iambics.
We have before shown that the cæsura improves the melody of verse ; and we shall now sprak of its other inore important office, that of being the chief source of harmony in numbers.
The first and lowest perception of harmony, by means of the cæsura, arises from comparing two members of the same line with each other, divided in the manner to be been in the instances before mentioned; because the beauty of proportion in the members, according to each of these divisions, is founded in nature; being as one to two-two to three -or three to two.
The next degree arises from comparing the members of a couplet, or two. contiguous lines : as,
the bold youth" strain up the threat'ning steep, Rush thro' the thickets" down the valleys sweep.
Here we find the cæsura of the first line, at the end of the second foot; and in the middle of the third foot, in *the last line.
Hang o'er their coursers' heads" with eager speed,
And earth rolls back" beneath the flying steed. In this couplet, the cæsura is at the end of the third foot, in the first line ; and of the second, in the latter line.
The next perception of harmony arises from comparing a greater number of lines, and observing the relative proportion of the couplets to each other, in point of similarity and diversity, as :
Thy forests Windsor" and thy green retreats,
doves. In this way, the comparison of lines variously appor. tioned by the different seats of the three cæsuras, may be the source of a great variety of harmony, consistent with the finest melody. This is still increased by the introduction of two cæsuras, and much more by that of semipauses. The semi-pauses double every where the terms of comparison ; give a more distinct view of the whole and the parts ; afford new proportions of measurement, and an ampler scope for diversity and equality, those sources of beauty in harmony.
Warms in the sun" refreshes' in the breeze,
Spreads' undivided" operates' unspent. 3d. The last object in versification regards expression. When men express their sentiments by words, they naturally fall into that sort of movement of the voice, which is consonant to that produced by the emotion in the mind; and the Dactylic or Anapæstic, the Trochaic, lambic, or Spondaic, prevails even in common discourse, according to the different nature of the sentiments ex
pressed. To imitate nature, therefore, the poet, in ar. ranging his words in the artificial composition of verse, must take care to make the movement correspond to the sentiment, by the proper use of the several kinds of feet: and this is the first and most general source of expression in numbers.
That a judicious management of the feet and pauses, may be peculiarly expressive of particular operations and sentiments, will sufficiently appear to the learner, by a few select examples under each of those heads.
In the following instance, the vast dimensions of Satan are shown by an uncommon succession of long syllables, which detain us to survey the huge arch fiend, in his fixed posture.
So stretch'd out hüge in length the ārch fiend láy. The next example affords instances of the power of a Trochee beginning a line, when succeeded by an lambus.
and sheer within
Leaps o'ěr thě fénce with ease into the fóid. The Trochee which begins the line shows Satan in the act of lighting : the lambus that follows, fixes him “ Lights on his feet."
The same artifice, in the beginning of the next line, makes us see the wolf—“ leap o'ěr thě fénce.”—But as the mere act of leaping over the fence, is not the only circumstance to be attended to, but also the facility with which it is done, this is strongly marked, not only by the smooth foot which follows" with ease”-itself very expressive, but likewise by a Pyrrhic preceding the last foot" into thě föld"--which indeed carries the wolf 66 with ease înto the fold.”
The following instances show the effects produced by cæsuras, so placed as to divide the line into very unequal portions : such >8 that after the first, and before the last semipede.
-thus with the
- year Seasons return, but not to me returns
Day" or the sweet approach of even or morn. Here the cæsura after the first semipede Day, stops us
unexpectedly, and forcibly impresses the imagination with the greatness of the author's loss, the loss of sight.
No sooner had th' Almighty ceas'd, but all
As from blest voices úttering joy. There is something very striking in this uncommon cæsura, which suddenly stops the reader, to reflect on the importance of a particular word.
We shall close the subject, with an example containing the united powers of many of the principles which have been explained.
Dire wăs the tossing deep the groans" Despair".
? Shook” bắt delẫy'd tõ strike. Many of the rules and observations respecting Prosody, are taken from “ Sheridan's Art of Reading;” to which book the Compiler refers the ingenious student, for more extensive information on the subject.“
PUNCTUATION is the art of dividing a written composition into sentences, or parts of sentences, by points or stops, for the purpose of marking the different pauses which the sense, and an accurate pronunciation require.
The Comma represents the shortest pause; the Sea micolon, a pause
double that of the comma; the Colon, double that of the semicolon; and the Period, double that of the colon.
The precise quantity or duration of each pause, cannot be defined; for it varies with the time of the whole. The same coioposition may be rehearsed in a quicker or a slower time ; but the proportion between the pauses should be ever invariable.
In order more clearly to determine the proper application of the points, we must distinguish between an imperfect phrase, a simple sentence, and a compound sentence.
An imperfect phrase contains no assertion, or does not amount to a proposition or sentence : as,
• Therefore, in haste ; studious of praise."
A simple sentence has but one subject, and one finite verb, expressed or implied: as, “ Temperance preserves health.”
A compound sentence has more than one subject, or one finite verb, either expressed or understood, or it consists of two or more simple sentences connected together : as, “Good nature mends and beautifies all objects;
" " Virtue refines the affections, but vice debases tliem.”
In a sentence, the subject and the verb, or either of them, may be accompanied with several adjuncts : as, the object, the end, the circumstance of time, place, manner, and the like : and the subject or verb may be either immediately connected with them, or mediately; that is, by
* As punctuation is in nded to aid both the sense, and the pronunciation of a sentence, it could not have been exclusively discussed under the part of Syntay, or of Prosody. The nature of the subject, its extent and importance, and the graunmatical knowledge which it presupposes, have induced us to make it a distinct and subsequent article.