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case, nor ve construed as a passive verb. We cannot say, she siniled him, or, he was smiled. But to smile on being a compound active verb, we properly say, she smiled on him; he was smiled on by fortune in every undertaking.
Auxiliary or helping Verbs, are those by the help of which the English verbs are principally conjugated. They are, do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, with their variations; and let and must, which have no variation.*
In our definition of the verb, as a part of speech which signifies to be, to do, or. to suffer, &c. we have included every thing, either expressly.or by necessary consequence, that is essential to its nature, and nothing that is not essen: tial to it. This definition is warranted by the authority of Dr. Lowth, and of many other respectable writers on grammar. There are, however, some grammarians, who consider assertion as the essence of the verb. But, as the. participle and the infinitive, if included in it, would prove insuperable objections to their scheme, they have, without hesitation, denied the former a place in the verb, and de. clared the latter to be merely an abstract noun. pears to be going rather too far in support of an hypothesise It seems to be incumbent on these grammarians, to reject also the imperative mood. What part of speech would they make the verbs in the following sentence ? “ Depart instantly : improve your time : forgive us our sins.” Will it be said, that the verbs in these phrases are assertions !
In reply to these questions, it has been said, that " Depart instantly,” is an expression equivalent to, “I desire you to depart instantly;" and that as the latter phrase implies affirmation or assertion, so does the former. But, supposing the phrases to be exactly alike in sense, the reasoning is not conclusive. 1st. In the latter phrase, the only part implying affirmation, is, “ I desire.” The words "to depart,” are in the intinitive mood, and contain no assertion : they affirm nothing. 2d. The position is not tenable, that "Equivalence in sense implies similarity in grammatical nature.” It proves too much, and therefore nothing. This mode of reasoning would confound the acknowledged grammatical distinction of words. A pro.
Lel, as a principal verb, has lellest and letteth.; but as a helping verb, is act witsref 110 variation
noun, on this principle, may be proved to be a noun; a noun, a verb; an adverb, a noun and preposition, the superlative degree, the comparative; the imperative mood, the indicative; the future tense, the present; and so on : because they may respectively be resolved into similar meanings. Thus, in the sentence, “I desire you to depart," the words to depart, may be called a noun, because they are equivalent in sense to the noun departure, in the following sentence, “I desire your departure.” The words “ depart instantly,” may be proved to be, not the imperative mood with an adverb, but the indicative and infinitive, with a noun and preposition ; for they are equivalent to
I desire you to depart in an instant." The superlative degree in this sentence, “Of all acquirements virtue is the mçst valuable,” may pass for the comparative, because it conveys the same sentiment as, “ Virtue is more valuable than every other acquirement."
We shall not pursue this subject any further, as the read. er. must be satisfied, that only the word desire, in the equivalent sentence, implies affirmation ; and that one phrase may, in sense, be equivalent to another, though its grammatical nature is essentially different. Toverbs belong NUMBER, PERSON, MOOD, and TENSE..
Section 2. Of Nurnber and Person. Verbs have two numbers, the Singular and the Plural: as,
run, we run," &c. In each number there are three persons; as, Singular.
They love. Thus the verb, in some parts of it, varies its endings, to express, or agree with, different persons of the same number:
; as, s I love, thou lovest; he loveth, or loves :" and at 80 to express different numbers of the same person : as, “ thou lovest, ye love ; he loveth, they love." In the plural number of the verb, there is no variation of ending to ex. press the different persons; and the verb, in the three per
sons plural, is the same as it is in the first person singular. Yet this scanty provision of terminations is sufficient for all the purposes of discourse, and no ambiguity arises from it: the verb being always attended, either with the noun expressing the subject acting or acted upon, or with the pronoun representing it. For this reason, the plural ter. mination in en, they loven, they weren, formerly in use, was. laid aside as unnecessary, and has long been obsolete.
Section 3. Of Moods and Participles. Mood or Mode is a particular form of the verb, shole ing the manner in which the being, action, or passion, is represented.
The nature of a mood may be more intelligibly explained to the scholar, by observing, that it consists in the change which the verb undergoes, to signify various intentions of the mind, and various modifications and circumstances of action: which explanation, if compared with the following account and uses of the different moods, will be found to agree with and illustrate them.
There are five moods of verbs, the INDICATIVE, the IMPERATIVE, the POTENTIAL, the SUBJUNCTIVE, and the INFINITIVE.
The Indicative Mood simply indicates or declares a thing: as, "He loves, he is loved :? or it asks a ques tion : as, “Does he love ?!? “ Is he loved?"
The Imperative Mood is used for commanding, exborting, entreating, or permitting; as, “.Depart thou; mind ye; let us stay; go in peace.
Though this mood derives its name from its intimation of command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite nature, even in the humblest supplications of an inferior being to one who is infinitely his superior : as, "Give us this day our daily bread ; and forgive us our trespasses.
The Potential Mood implies possibility or liberty, power, will, or obligation: as, " It may rain ; he may go or stay, I can ride; he would walk ; they should learn."
The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c.; and is pre
ceded by a conjunction, expressed or understood, and attended by another verb: as “I will respect him, though he chide me;" "Were he good, he would be happy;" that is, " if he were good.”-See note 8 to Rule 19.
The Infinitive Mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without
distinction of num• ber or person; as,
to act, to speak, to be feared.” The participle is a certain form of the verb, and de. rives its name from its participating, not only of the properties of a verb, but also of those of an adjective: as, “I am desirous of knowing him ;" “ admired and applauded, he became vain;" “ Having finished his work, he submitted it,” &c.
There are three participles, the Present or Active, the Perfect or Passive, and the Compound Perfect : as, “ loving, loved, having loved.”-See p. 94.
Agreeably to the general practice of grammarians, we have represented the present participle, as active; and the past, as passive : but they are not uniformly so: the present is sometimes passive ; and the past is frequently active. Thus, " The youth was consuming by a slow malady;" “ The Indian was burning by the cruelty of his enemies ;" appear to be instances of the present participle being used passively. “ He has instructed me;" “ I have gratefully repaid his kindness ;” are examples of the past participle being applied in an active sense. We may also observe, that the present participle is sometimes associated with the past and future tenses of the verb; and the past participle connected with the present and future. tenses.--The most unexceptionable distinction which grammarians make between the participles, is, that the one points to the continuation of the action, passion, or state, denoted by the verb; and the other, to the completion of it. Thus, the present participle signifies imperfect action, or action begun and not ended : as, “I am writing a letter.” The past participle signifies action perfected, or finished : as, “I have written a letter;" “ The letter is
* When this participle is joined to the verb to have, it is called perfect; WLCD it is joined to the verb to be, or understood with it, it is denominated passinc.,
The participle is distinguished from the adjective, by the former's expressing the idea of time, and the latter's de. noting only a quality. The phrases, “ loving to give as well as to receive," 66 moving in haste,” is heated with li quor," contain participles giving the idea of time; but the epithets contained in the expressions, “a loving child," "a moving spectacle," "a heated imagination,” mark sim. ply the qualities referred to, without any regard to time; and may properly be called participial adjectives.
Participles not only convey the notion of time ; but they also signify actions, and govern the cases of nouns and pronouns, in the same manner as verbs do; and therefore should be comprehended in the general name of verbs. That they are mere modes of the verb, is manifest, if our definition of a verb be admitted : for they signify being, doing, or suffering, with the designation of time superadded. But if the esence of the verb be made to consist in affirmation or assertion, not only the participle will be excluded from its place in the verb, but the infinitive itself also ; which certain ancient grammarians of great authority held to be alone the genuine verb, simple and unconnected with persons and circumstances.
The following phrases, even when considered in them. selves, show that participles include the idea of time : “The letter being written, or having been written;" "Charles being writing, having written, or having been writing.” But when arranged in an enure semence, which they must be to make a complete sense, they show it still more evidently : as, “Charles having written the letter, sealed and despatched it.”—The participle does indeed associate with different tenses of the verb: as, "I am writing,”?" I was writing,” “ I shall be writing :" but this forms no just objection to its der oting time. If the time of it is often relative time, this circumstance, far from disproving, supports our position. See observations under Rule 13 of Syntax.
Participles sometimes perform the office of substantives, and are used as such; as in the following instances: “ The
+ From the very nature of time, an action may be present non, it may have been present formerly, or it may be present at some future period- yet whoever fupposed, that the present of the indicative denotes no time"