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than he has ;" “ He can write much better than he could

last year.

Must is sometimes called in for a helper, and denotes necessity : as, “ We must speak the truth, whenever we do speak, and we must not prevaricate.”

Will, in the first person singular and plural, intimates resolution and promising ; in the second and third person, only foretels : as, “ I will reward the good, and will punish the wicked;" “ We will remember benefits, and be grateful;" “ Thou wilt, or he will, repent of that folly;" You or they will have a pleasant walk."

Shall, on the contrary, in the first person, simply fore« tels ; in the second and third persons, promises, commands, or threatens: as, “I shall go abroad;" “ We shall dine at home ;" “ Thou shalt, or you shall, inherit the land :" “ Ye shall do justice, and love mercy;" "

They shall account for their misconduct." The following passage is not translated according to the distinct and proper meanings of the words shall and will : “ Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life ; and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever;" it ought to be, Will follow me,” and “ I shall dwell.”—The foreigner who, as it is said, fell into the Thames, and cried out; “I will be drowned, no body shall help me ;" made a sad misapplication of these auxiliaries.

These observations respecting the import of the verbs will and shall, must be understood of explicative sentences; for when the sentence is interrogative, just the reverse, for the most part, takes place : thus, " I shall go: you

will go;" express event only: but, “ will you go ?imports intention; and, “ shall I go ?” refers to the will of another. But, “ He shall go,” and “shall he go ?” both imply will ; expressing or referring to a command.

When the verb is put in the subjunctive mood, the meaning of these auxiliaries likewise undergoes some alteration ; as the learners will readily perceive by a few examples: “ He shall proceed," " If he shall proceed ;" " You shall consent, “ If you shall consent." These auxiliaries are sometimes interchanged, in the indicative and subjunctive moods, to convey the same meaning of the auxiliary: as,

“ He will not return,' “If he shall

not return;" “ He shall not return,” “ If he will not return."

Would, primarily denotes inclination of will; and should, obligation : :but they both vary their import, and are often used to express simple event.

SECTION 8. The Conjugation of Regular Verbs.


VERBS - Active are called Regular, when they form their imperfect tense of the indicative mood, and their perfect participle, by adding to the verb.ed, or d only when the verb ends in e: as, Present. Imperfect.

Perf. Particip.
I favour.
I favoured.

I love..
I loved..


A Regular Active Verb is conjugated in the following manner.

Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.

I love.

1. We love. 2. Thou lovest.

2. Ye or you love. 3. He, she, or it, loveth, or loves.

3. They love.

Imperfect Tense. . Singular.

Plural. 1. I loved.

1. We lovedee's 2. Thou lovedst.

2. Ye


loved. 3. He loved.

3. They loved.

Perfect Tense.

Plural. 1. I have loved.

1. We have loved. 2. Thou hast loved. 2. Ye or you have loved 3. He hath or has loved. 3. They have loved

• In the present and imperfect tenses, we use a different form of the verb, when we mean to express energy and positiveness ; as, “ I do love; thou dose love ; be does love; I did love; thou didst love; he did love."

Pluperfect Tense,

Plural. 1. I had loved.

1. We bad lovea. 2. Thou hadst loved. 2. Ye or you had lovea. 3. He had loved.

3. They had loved.

First Future Tense.

Plural. i. I shall or will love. 1. We shall or will love. 2. Thou shalt or wilt love. 2. Ye or you shall or will love 3. He shall or will love. 3. They shall or will love.

Second Future Tense.

Plural. 1. I shall have loved. 1. We shall have loved. 2. Thou wilt have loved. 2. Ye or you will have loved 3. He will have loved. 3. They will have loved.

6. I love,

Those tenses are called simple tenses, which are formed of the principal, without an auxiliary verb: as, I loved.” The compound tenses are such as cannot be formed without an auxiliary verb: as,

I have loved ; I kad loved; I shall or will love ; I may love; I may be loved; I may have been loved;" &c. These compounds are, however, to be considered as only different forms of the same verb.


Imperative Mood.

Plural. 1. Let me love.

1. Let us love. 2. Love, or love thou, or do 2. Love, or love ye or you: thou love.

or do ye love. 3. Let him love.

3. Let them love.

Potential Mood.

Present Tense.

Plural. 1. I may it can love. 1. We may or can love. 2. Thou mayst or canst love. 2. Ye or you may or can love. 3. He mayor can love. 3. They may or can love.

knperfect Tense. SingułRT.

Plural. 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, should love.

or should love. 9. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldet love. would, or should love. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would; or should love.

or should love.

Perfect Tense.

Plural. 1. I may or can have loved. 1. We mayor can have loved. 8. Thou mayst or canst have 2. Ye or you mayor can have loved.

loved. 3. He may or can have lov- 3. They may or can bave ed.


Pluperfect Tense.

Plural. 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, should have loved.

or should have loved. 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have lovloved.

ed. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would or should have loved. or should have loved.

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.

Plural. ,1. If I love.

1. If we love. 2. If thou love,

2. If ye or you love. 3. If he love.

3. If they love. The remaining tenses of this mood, are, in general, similar to the correspondent tenses of the indicative mood. See page 82, and page 95.

It may be of use to the scholar, to remark, in this place, that though only the conjunction if is affixed to the verb, any other conjunction proper for the subjunctive mood, may, with eoual propriety, be occasionally annexed. The

instance given is sufficient to explain the subject: more would be tedious, and tend to embarrass the learner.

Infinitive Mood.
Preseni. To love. Perfect. To have loved.

Present. Loving Perfect. Loved.

Compound Perfect. Having loved. The active verb may be conjugated differently, by adding its present or active participle to the auxiliary verb to be, through all its moods and tenses; as, instead of " I teach, thou teachest, he teaches,” &c.; we may say,“ I am teaching, thou art teaching, he is teaching,” &c. : and instead of “ I taught,” &c.“ I was teaching," &c. and so on, through all the variations of the auxiliary. : This mode of conjugation has, on particular occasions, a peculiar propriety ; and contributes to the harmony and precision of the language. These forms of expression are adapted to particular acts, not to general habits, or affections of the mind. They are very frequently applied to neuter verbs; as, “ I am musing; he is sleeping.?*

Some grammarians apply, what is caļled the conjunctive termination, to the persons of the principal verb, and to its auxiliaries, tbrough all the tenses of the subjunctive mood. But this is certainly contrary to the practice of good writers. Johnson applies this termination to the present and perfect tenses only. Lowth restricts it entirely to the present tense ; and Priestley confines it to the present and imperfect tenses. This difference of opinion amongst grammarians of such eminence, may have contributed to that diversity of practice, so observable in the use of the subJunctive mood. Uniformity in this point is highly desirable. It would materially assist both teachers and learners; and would constitute a considerable improvement in our language. On this subject, we adopt the opinion of Dr. Lowth; and conceive we are fully warranted by his au

* As the participle, in this mode of conjugation, performs the office of a verb, through all the moods and tenses; and as it implies the idea of time, and governs the objective case of nouns and pronouns, in the same manner as verbs do ; is it not manifest, that it is a species or form of the verb, and that it cannot be properly considered as a distinct part of speech?

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