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thority, and that of the most correct and elegan writers, in limiting the conjunctive termination of the principal verb, to the second and third persons singular of the present tense.

Grammarians have not only differed in opinion, respecting the extent and variations of the subjunctive mood; but a few of them have even doubted the existence of such a mood in the English language, These writers assert, that the verb has no variation from the indicative ; and that a conjunction added to the verb, gives it no title to become a distinct mood; or, at most, no better than it would have, if any other particle were joined to it. To these observa. tions it may be ieplied; ist. It is evident, on inspection, that, in the sutinctive mood, the present tense of the principal verbs, the present and imperfect tenses of the verb to be, and the second and third persons, in both num bers, of the second future tense of all verbs ;* require a variation from the forms which those tenses have in the

ndicative mood. So much difference in the form of the verb, would warrant a correspondent distinction of mood, though the remaining parts of the subjunctive were, in all respects, similar to those of the indicative. In other languages, a principle of this nature has been admitted, both in the conjugation of verbs, and the declension of nouns. 2d. There appears to be as much propriety, in giving a conjunction the power of assisting to form the subjunctive mood, as there is in allowing the particle to to have an effect in the formation of the infinitive mood.t 3d. A con. junction added to the verb, shows the manner of being, doing, or suffering, which other particles cannot show : they do not coalesce with the verb, and modify it, as conjunctions do. 4th. It may be said, “If contingency constitutes the subjunctive mood, then it is the sense of a phrase, and not a conjunction, that determines this mood.” But a little reflection will show, that the contingent sense lies in the meaning and force of the conjunction, expressed or understood.

This subject may be farther illustrated, by the following observations.--Moods have a foundation in nature. They

* We think it has been proved, thac the auxiliary is a constituent part of the verb to which it relates : that the principal and its auxiliary forin but one verb. 4 Conjunctions save an intuence on the mood of the following verb. Conjuactions have sometimes a government of raoods.

Dr. Lonth.

Dr: Beattia

show what is certain ; what is possible ; what is conditional; what is commanded. They express also other conceptions and volitions ; all signifying the manner of being, doing, or suffering. But as it would tend to obscure, rather than elucidate the subject, if the moods were particularly enumerated, grammarians have very properly given them such combinations and arrangements, as serve to explain the nature of this part of language, and to render the knowledge of it easily attainable.

The grammars of some languages contain a greater number of the moods, than others, and exhibit them in different forms. The Greek and Roman tongues denote them, by particular variations in the verb itself. This form, however, was the effect of ingenuity and improvement: it is not essential to the oature of the subject. The moods may be as effectually designated by a plurality of words, as by a change in the appearance of a single word; because the same ideas are denoted, and the same ends accomplished, by either manner of expression.

On this ground, the moods of the English verb, as well as the tenses, are, with great propriety, formed partly by the principal verb itself, and partly by the assistance which that verb derives from other words. For further observa. tions, relative to the views and sentiments here advanced, see pages 71–72. 76–78. 100-102 -183-184.

PASSIVE. VERBS Passive are called regular, when they form their perfect participle by the addition of d or ed, to the verb: as, from the verb “To love,” is formed the

pas give, “I am loved, I was loved, I shall be loved," &c.

A passive verb is conjugated by adding the perfect participle to the auxiliary to be, through all its changes of number, person, mood, and tense, in the following manner.

TO BE LOVED.
Indicative Mood.

Present Tense,
Singular.

Plural. 1. I am loved.

1. We are loved. 2. Thou art loved.

2. Ye or you are loved. 3. He is loved

3. They are loved.

Imperfect Tense. Singular.

Plural. 1. I was loved.

1. We were loved. 2. Thou wast loved.

2. Ye or you were loved. 3. He was loved.

3. They were loved.

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I have been loved.

1. We have been loved. 2. Thon hast been loved. 2. Ye or you have been loved. 3. He hath or has been loved. 3. They have been loved.

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I had been loved.

1. We had been loved. 2. Thou hadst been loved. 2. Ye or you had been loved 3. He had been loved. 3. They had been loved.

First Future Tense. Singular.

Plural. 1. I shall or will be loved. 1. We shall or will be loved. 2. Thou shalt or wilt be lov- 2. Ye or you shall or will be ed.

loved. 3. He shall or will be loved. 3. They shall or will be loved.

Second Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I shall have been loved. 1. We shall have been loved. 2. Thou wilt have been lov. 2. Ye or you will have been ed.

loved. 3. He will have been loved. 3. They will have been loved.

Imperative Mood.
Singular.

Plural. 1. Let me be loved.

1. Let us be loved. 2. Be thou loved, or do thou 2. Be ye or you loved, or do be loved.

ye be loved. 3. Let him be loved.

3. Let them be loved. I.

Potential Mood.

Present Tense. Singular.

Plura). 1. I may or can be loved. 1. We may or can be loved. 2. Thou mayst or canst be 2. Ye or you may or can be loved.

loved. 3. He may or can be loved. 3. They mayor can be loved

Imperfect Tense. Singular.

Plural. 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, should be loved.

or should be loved. 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst be would, or should be lov. loved.

ed. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would, or should be loved.

or should be loved.

Perfect Tense. Singular.

Plural. 1. I may or can have been

1. We may or can have been loyed.

loved. 2. Thou mayst or canst have 2. Ye or you mayor can have been loved.

been loved. 3. He may or can have been 5. They may or can have loved.

been loved.

Pluperfect Tense. Singular.

Plural. 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would,

should have been loved. or should have been loved. 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have been loved.

been loved. 3. He might, could, would, or 3. They might, could, would,

should have been loved. or should have been loved.

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. If I be loved.

1. If we be loved. 2. If thou be loved

2. If ye or you be loved 3. If he be loyed.

3. If they be loved.

Imperfect Tense. Singular.

Plural. 1. If I were loved.

1. If we were loved. 2. If thou wert loved. 2. If ye or you were loved. 3. If he were loved.

3. If they were loved.

The remaining tenses of this mood are, in general, similar to the correspondent tenses of the indicative mood, See pages 82, 95, and the notes under the nineteenth rule of Syntax.

Infinitive Mood.
Present Tense.

Perfect.
To be loved.

To have been loved.

Participles. Present.

Being loved. Perfect or Passive.

Loved. Coindound Perfect.

Having been loved. When an auxiliary is joined to the participle of the prin cipal verb, the auxiliary goes through all the variations of person and number, and the participle itself continues invariably the same. When there are two or more auxi. liaries joined to the participle, the first of them only is varied according to person and number. The auxiliary must admits of no variation. The neuter verb'is conjugated like the active ;

but as it partakes somewhat of the nature of the passive, it admits, in many instances, of the passive form, retaining still the Deuter signification : as, “ I am arrived ;" “ I was gone;". “I am grown." The auxiliary verb, am, was, in this case, precisely defines the time of the action or event, but does not change the nature of it; the passive form still expressing, not properly a passion, but only a state or condition of being.

SECTION 9. Observations on Passive Verbs. Some writers on grammar assert, that there are no Passive Verbs in the English language, because we have no

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