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that it was impossible to get retrenchment and no unpopular taxation, chose Mr. Molteno as their mouthpiece who, without obtruding his services, became their leader, and I believe the country generally will approve of the manly, able, and uncompromising stand he has made. Even in the east his services were acknowledged. The Port Elizabeth Telegraph' said :—We understand it is contemplated to thank the leader of the Assembly, Mr. Molteno, for his services during the session. Such a tribute will be worthy of the man and of the occasion.'

He received addresses from different parts of the country thanking him for the stand which he had made in defence of the constitutional rights of Parliament to control the expenditure, and furthermore a requisition from Cape Town, signed by 500 electors, which recounted his services and thanked him for them, and asked him to allow himself to be nominated for a seat in the Assembly. Mr. Molteno replied that Beaufort had prior claims upon him, as he had sat for that constituency since the institution of Parliament, and he felt that he could thoroughly rely upon his constituents—they were men who could not be tampered with, and whose suffrages could not be bought.

A very strong attempt, however, was made to tamper with his election, and Messrs. Thwaites and Christie were supported by the Conservatives, against Mr. Rice and Mr. Molteno. There was great excitement on the nomination day, and the show of hands was apparently in favour of Dr. Christie and Mr. Thwaites. It was, however, subsequently discovered that about a hundred coloured men had been brought up with directions how to act, and on a given signal from their leader they held up their hands when Dr. Christie and Mr. Thwaites were proposed. A poll was demanded. When the polling day arrived in the town of Beaufort itself Mr. Molteno and Mr. Rice were in a minority. This was immediately telegraphed to Cape Town, and great were the rejoicings among the Conservatives; but their hopes were soon dashed to the ground by finding that the country part of the constituency had reversed the verdict of the town, and that Mr. Molteno and Mr. Rice were returned by the majority of votes of two to one over their opponents.

In the recess the Governor published his fourth attempt to alter the constitution. A Bill was gazetted for abolishing the Upper House and reducing the Lower House to thirty-two members, including a number of official nominees of the Governor. There was now a clear issue before the country, whether the power of the Executive should be increased, or whether representative institutions should be further extended and be enabled to reach their legitimate goal in the form of responsible government.

The retrenchment outcry became stronger than ever after the dissolution, and became a national one. Mr. Frank Reitz, in his election address above referred to, said he would beg to conclude with this observation, namely :

That the Parliament of the Cape of Good Hope assembled in 1869, whether we consider the talent, the industry, the independence, local knowledge, and honesty of purpose possessed by the members, would bear favourable comparison with that of any country, even with more complicated and difficult tasks to overcome, and if they could, after three months' devoted work, do nothing there must be something wrong in the state of affairs, and nothing but real representative government could remedy this condition of affairs.

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Responsible Government in other colonies-Canada-Australia—New Zealand

-Sir Philip's fourth Constitution-Session of 1870–Reserve SchedulesAttempt to withdraw Salaries from Votes --Debate on Governor's Proposals -Rejection of them-Incompetency of Executive-Illness of Mr. Molteno -Sir Philip's departure-Withdrawal of Troops-Lord Kimberley's views -Colonial Responsibility for Defence-Sir Henry Barkly, Governor-Mr. Molteno moves for Responsible Government-Speech in favour of-Motion carried-Discussion on Bill for Responsible Government-Bill carriedRejection by Council - Annexation of Diamond Fields proposed -Opposed by Mr. Molteno-Visits Europe-Observations applied to Cape—Return to Cape—Session of 1872-Debate on Responsible Government Bill—Bill passed-Annexation of Griqualand West-Rejected-Effect of Responsible Government on Federation-Agitation in East-Its Collapse-New Ministry -Description of Mr. Molteno-Formation of Cabinet-Special Provisions of Responsible Government Act.

THE question may not be unprofitably asked whether Sir Philip Wodehouse could expect to rely for hope upon anything which had occurred in any of the other great colonies of the Empire in carrying his reactionary measure through the Cape Parliament ? Did the Cape differ from them in spirit or self-reliance ? A glance at the history of the development of colonial self-government may supply the answer.

Sir George Cornewall Lewis, writing in 1841, was correct in saying that,

Since the close of the American war it has not been the policy of England to vest any portion of the legislative power of the subordinate government of a dependency in a body elected by the inhabitants. The only exception to this uniform policy is furnished by the Canadian provinces, whose subordinate Government was partly vested in a House of Assembly by an Act passed in 1791."

Lewis, Government of Dependencies, p. 159.

The loss of our American colonies was long in teaching wisdom to our Government; so far from conceding greater freedom to those which remained, the colonial policy of England underwent a complete change. “To prevent the further dismemberment of the Empire, became the primary object of our statesmen,' says Lord Durham in his celebrated Report of 1839;' and ' a special anxiety was exhibited to adopt every expedient which appeared calculated to prevent the remaining North American colonies from following the example of successful revolt.' We interfered in every kind of way with the internal affairs of the colonies. British colonisation for a time lost its main characteristics, and · British provinces became the scene of a strange experiment, that of governing English subjects in America from an Office in London, and submitting distant dependencies to a subordinate Agency of à metropolitan Bureau working through the intrigue of a narrow clique on the spot.'2

English spirit soon showed itself in protest. The Canadian colonists asked for a constitution similar to that of England, which would give them more self-government. In 1791 an elected House of Assembly and a nominee Legislative Council were established in Upper and Lower Canada, the two provinces into which that country was then divided. But matters did not stop here, for there was a continual struggle on the part of the colonists to obtain complete representative institutions, by the subjection of the Executive to their own Legislature, the system in other words of responsible government.

The Government at home were very loth to yield. Their reluctance cost the country an enormous sum, and injured the colonial growth. Lord Durham reported that 'in each and every province the representatives were in hostility to the policy of the Government, and the administration of public

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2 Sir Charles Adderley, Colonial Poiicy, p. 20.

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VOL. I.

affairs was permanently in the hands of a Ministry not in harmony with the popular branch of the Legislature.'?

This was exactly the position to which irresponsible government had reduced the condition of the Ministry at the Cape. It was argued then, as on every subsequent occasion it has similarly been argued, that the cessation of interference would mean the total separation of the colonies; but Lord Durham took the true view that the cessation from irritating interference meant the growth of better relations, and the birth of a warmer feeling of attachment, together with the removal of the causes of difference.

In the meantime, during 1837–8, there were rebellions, as well in Upper as in Lower Canada, owing to these defects in the constitution. In 1844 an Act was passed for the union of Upper and Lower Canada, separated in 1791, so as to merge the quarrels of the two races, and this shows the wisdom of the policy of not granting a separate government to the eastern province of the Cape Colony. What was wanted was, that the Government should be in harmony with the Legislature. Mr. Gibbon Wakefield describes the effect of giving representative institutions without responsible government 'as being much like that of lighting a fire in a room with the chimney closed.

How long it will last depends on the strength of the fire.' The determination of Englishmen is the same in whatever part of the world they may be established, only to submit to laws passed with their own consent.

The course of events tended to place more power in the hands of the Ministry responsible to the local Legislature. Yet the process was a gradual one. So late as 1844 Lord Metcalfe, the Governor-General, dismissed the Ministry, supported by a majority of the Assembly, and set up ministers of his own whom he kept in power by the vigorous use of his influence. This was aptly compared with

| Report, 1839, pp. 27–8, quoted by Adderley, p. 22.

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