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enthusiasm which marked his first visit to the eastern province showed that even where he might most have expected opposition he was welcomed as a worthy head of the Government. The independent support which Mr. Porter and Mr. Solomon both afforded the new Ministry was of great value to its stability and its power, and enabled it to pursue a policy of vigorous development of colonial resources.

After a short delay Mr. Molteno announced that he had been able to form a Cabinet. The Hon. Dr. White, member of the Legislative Council, would be treasurer; the AttorneyGeneral was to be Mr. J. H. De Villiers; the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public Works, Mr. Abercrombie Smith; and the Secretary for Native Affairs, Mr. Charles Brownlee, who consented to resign the Civil Commissionership of King William's Town in order to accept the post. Mr. De Villiers and Dr. White, like Mr. Molteno himself, had long advocated responsible government. Mr. Smith was one of its leading opponents on the ground of a change being premature, but who now sought to make the best of an accomplished fact. Mr. Brownlee, who had not hitherto taken a part in politics, was well known to be a man of ability, and better acquainted with the language and customs of the natives of the eastern frontier than anyone else in the Colony. With regard to the functions which these officers discharged, it had always been the practice for the Colonial Secretary to introduce the Budget, and Mr. Molteno continued henceforth to combine with his own the all-important duties of Chancellor of the Exchequer.

The announcement of these names was received generally with satisfaction, and a widespread disposition was expressed to give the new Ministry a fair trial, though the more bitter of the Conservatives still made various attempts to disparage this Ministry and to embarrass Mr. Molteno by spreading various untrue and absurd reports, which were, however, of little avail. The people of the midland district

somewhat regretted that no member of the Ministry had been selected from among them, but they recognised that owing to the small number in the Cabinet, it was not easy to select a member from every part of the Colony, while it was some consolation to them when they observed that even Port Elizabeth was unrepresented. The Hon. Mr. Joseph Vintcent had been offered the Treasurer-Generalship, but was forced to decline on account of ill-health; while the Secretaryship for Native Affairs was offered to Mr. Glanville, the member for Grahamstown, but owing to business considerations and other causes he was unable to accept it.

The Colonial Secretary was to have charge of matters political, ecclesiastical, and educational, of the Budget, various appointments, miscellaneous services, diplomatic correspondence, the town and border police, the post office, gaols, convicts, and asylums. It was so large a field that it was confidently expected that a new Minister would be appointed in order to deal with some of the work, which seemed too much for any one man. The Responsible Government Act was promulgated on the 29th of November and the new Ministry were appointed in the ‘Gazette' from the 1st of December. This, however, being Sunday, they took office practically from Monday, the 2nd of December, 1872. Its general effect can best be given in the words of Sir Henry de Villiers :

The question was brought annually before Parliament, and at first there were large majorities against any change, but Mr. Molteno's indomitable energy and force of character carried the day in the end. He had an infinite faith in the good sense of the people of his adopted country, and never wavered in his belief that they might safely be intrusted with the management of their own affairs. ... The Bill for the Introduction of Responsible Government, which was drafted by myself' at Mr. Molteno's request, was very simple in its terms. It provided for the appoint

| This refers to the Act of 1872. The Bill of 1871 was drafted by Mr. Porter as we have seen on a previous page. VOL. I.

O

ment by the Governor of five officials, viz. :-a Colonial Secretary, an Attorney-General, a Treasurer, a Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public Works, and a Secretary for Native Affairs, who should all be members of the Executive Council, and eligible as members of either House of Parliament. It further provided that a Minister, on being elected as member of one House, should have the right to take part in the debates, but not to vote in the other House. This latter provision has proved a very useful one, and has given successive Premiers a larger scope than they would otherwise have had in the selection of their colleagues. Upon the proclamation of the Act, it was considered to be a matter of course that Mr. Molteno should be asked to form the first Ministry

The provision which enables Cabinet Ministers to speak in either House of Parliament was unique in the constitutions of the Colonies, and it has subsequently been followed, owing to its success, in Natal. It appears to have originated as follows. When representative institutions were introduced in the Cape, a special provision in the 79th section of the Constitution Ordinance forbade Cabinet Ministers sitting in Parliament; they were nevertheless empowered to appear and speak in both Houses. This provision had worked well. Mr. Porter, in introducing the Responsible Government Bill, supported it for the following reasons :- The Cabinet in England consists, I think, of sixteen members, besides a host of Under-Secretaries, many of whom have seats in Parliament, so that nothing of this kind is necessary there. But we have a small body of Ministers-only five members . . . . and I think we should like these five officers to sit here to speak, to explain, to enforce . . . . For suppose the Minister for Crown Lands and Public Works to belong to the other House, and information should be required here in connection with his office, would it not be better that he should be able to come here and explain himself, rather than that a colleague sitting

See Law 14 of 1893, of Natal also Todd's Parliamentary Government in the British Colonies, 2nd edition, p. 61.

in this House should go to him and get 'crammed' before he could give us the information or explanation required ? '

He explained that the section constituting the offices of Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public Works and Secretary for Native Affairs followed an exactly similar provision in the Act constituting the Dominion of Canada. It is interesting to observe the confidence which by this time prevailed that responsible government was to be a reality and not a sham. An occurrence such as the dismissal of a Ministry possessing a majority in Parliament was looked upon as an absurdity. Mr. Porter said :-'I for one do not anticipate that after we have passed responsible government any Governor will dare to oppose the principles of responsible government which will then be carried out, and render it impossible for any Ministry to keep in power in opposition to it. It is contrary to reason to suppose it.' He was too sanguine, as the sequel will show.

CHAPTER IX

ADMINISTRATION OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT. 1872-1873

Policy of Cabinet-Colonial control of Natives--Solution of South African

Troubles—Sir George Grey's Policy continued-Education-UniversityRailways—Extension of Boundaries-Session of 18734Seven Circles BillFinances-Review of Session-Success of Measures-Visit to Eastern Provinces-Enthusiastic Reception.

MR. MOLTENO had at last seen the change brought about which he had advocated from the first days of the Parliament itself. It was now for him to make good his reiterated statements that the Colony was able to manage its own affairs, and was not making a fatal mistake in relying upon its own sons rather than upon talent imported from elsewhere.

In conjunction with Mr. Porter and Mr. Solomon he had resisted the efforts of the autocratic Governor, Sir Philip Wodehouse ; we have followed the struggle in these pages, and have seen that the battle was well fought and well won.

These statesmen, who knew the country and its sturdy inhabitants well, clearly foresaw and predicted that though the most law-abiding of populations, yet they would not submit to be taxed and governed by a Government out of touch and sympathy with them. As Mr. Molteno said in Parliament :- This population is a quiet and long-suffering one, but if taxes and contributions are to be wrung from it by a Government with whom the people are not in sympathy, they would not endure it, and only overwhelming force could compel them. They saw that the time had come when the Government could be carried on successfully only by men who thoroughly understood the people, and whose

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