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share of the Cape customs dues, as an inducement to it to join the proposed federation, he said :

A great deal might be said why the Free State and the Transvaal should not receive a portion of the customs duty. Who made all the harbours and the roads? Who built all the bridges and erected telegraphs, kept up and extended postal communication, and everything else of a public nature? This Colony, of course ; and the other States, being situated inland, we had to do all these things for them. These States derived great benefit from all these things. It is unwise, however, to raise this question now, and we can do far more with it by-and-by.

Mr. Sprigg, in his reply, concluded by saying :

During the life of the present Ministry I have on several occasions felt it my duty to oppose their measures; but to-night the Colonial Secretary has made a noble stand for the honour and dignity of this Colony. He has, in my opinion, shown himself to be a true Colonial Minister. He has announced his intention to vote for this resolution, and by so doing to carry out in their integrity those principles of responsible government for the establishment of which he and I alike contended in bygone years; and, looking around this House, I appeal to those members who in the past professed their faith in responsible government, to remain firm in that faith now, and stand by me, side by side with the Government, in resisting this undue interference on the part of the Secretary of State with the rights and liberties of this Colony.

This decision of the Parliament had been arrived at with absolute unanimity on the point that no conference was necessary or desirable at present, and the only question was whether one form of resolution or another was preferable to express this. It had been come to before an appeal had been made to those passions which were now to be quickened into life once more by Mr. Froude's actions; his peculiar cast of views, backed by his genius, his eloquence, and a peculiar set of public conditions, were to lead to a prolonged and fatal disturbance of South African society.

CHAPTER XIV

MR. FROUDE AND CONFEDERATION-continued. 1875 Mr. Froude attends Opposition Dinner-States Lord Carnarvon's Policy

Stumps the Country-Violent Agitation-Visits Western Province --Natal -Eastern Province-Denounces Ministry and Parliament -Correspondence with Mr. Molteno-Assumes position of Royal Commissioner-Extraordinary Statements--Lord Carnarvon approves Proceedings-Comments of the

English Press-Mr. Molteno advises a special Session. An interval of three weeks elapsed between the receipt of Lord Carnarvon's despatch and the arrival of Mr. Froude at Cape Town. He was terribly chagrined when he found that the whole matter was already dealt with and disposed of by the decisive action of Parliament. Lord Carnarvon's own instructions to avoid any delay had brought about this result ---indeed, Lord Carnarvon found great fault with the High Commissioner for not immediately forwarding his invitation to the Free States. Had the question now been allowed to drop, no great harm would have been done; but this was very far from Lord Carnarvon and Mr. Froude's intentions. They were warned by those who were responsible for the peace and safety of the Colony and of South Africa, both by the High Commissioner and Mr. Molteno, that there was great danger if the course on which they appeared to be bent was persisted in.

Lord Carnarvon was informed by the High Commissioner that had Mr. Froude landed simultaneously with the despatch, his enthusiasm and his eloquence might have made many converts; but it was not likely that these qualities would have produced more impression upon a cautious and reflecting man like Mr. Molteno than they actually did on his arrival. Lord Carnarvon had been informed, nearly a year before, that Mr. Molteno's views agreed with those of the Governor as to the inutility of bringing forward proposals for federation which would prove prejudicial to the Cape Colony by interfering with the native policy, and with the carrying out of public works, and would check the progress of amalgamation between East and West now satisfactorily proceeding under responsible government. He further informed Lord Carnarvon, with a pointed reference to Mr. Molteno, that it was much to be deplored that Mr. Froude, during his former hurried visit, instead of consulting on this subject one whose opinion was certainly entitled to the greatest weight, should have been satisfied with broaching his ideas to persons possessing less experience, who were under no sort of responsibility for the answers they gave.

The High Commissioner pointed out to Lord Carnarvon that there were some Easterns who would look upon a federation movement, paradoxical as it may sound, as a stalking-horse to separation, and these had no doubt encouraged Mr. Froude on his first visit. He would now find them more ready to do so, especially at Grahamstown, the would-be capital of the east; and, 'aided by the republican sympathisers, as well as those who desired, on party grounds, to turn out the Ministry, a really formidable agitation might be organised, in which East would be ranged against West, Dutch against English, and possibly Kaffirs against both; thus disturbing the harmony which prevails in the Colony, and reducing it to even a more critical state than before the introduction of responsible government.'1 This wise, accurate forecast was, unhappily, to be realised. The man on the spot, as on many previous occasions, gave the warning which was deliberately set aside by the man at a distance, with disastrous results.

Mr. Froude had placed himself in a false position by accepting, even before he landed, an invitation to a public

· Letter of Sir H. Barkly to Lord Carnarvon, 25th of June, 1875.

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dinner which had been so openly got up as a party political demonstration, that the President of the Legislative Council, the Speaker of the Assembly, and the Members of the Ministry (the latter of whom were added to the list at Mr. Froude's suggestion) felt compelled to decline, while the Governor himself had no alternative but to adopt a similar course. Indeed, he informed Lord Carnarvon that his position as a representative of the Crown had become most embarrassing between one who claimed to be the direct exponent of Lord Carnarvon's views, and his own responsible advisers who highly resented such interposition, and who quoted Lord Carnarvon's own authority in the case of the Dominion of Canada against such interference.

The dinner referred to was looked upon by Mr. Froude as an opportunity for explaining and vindicating the policy of the despatch. Mr. Molteno, however, maintained that any enunciation of Lord Carnarvon's views and intentions towards the people of the Colony ought to be made through its Government and not at an after-dinner speech. When appealed to by Mr. Froude he suggested that the latter should put his explanations in the shape of a letter which could, if desired, be laid before Parliament, and the following correspondence took place between them :

St. George's Hotel, June 21. MY DEAR MR. MOLTENO,- I have thought over what you said to me about the dinner. I am in a dilemma between two duties, for Lord C. when he sees the interpretation which you have placed upon his despatch, will call me to account for not explaining matters. If you will kindly put in writing your objections to my making a speech, so that I can forward it to Lord Carnarvon in defence of my silence, I am ready to follow your advice. virtually placed at your disposition as I told you, for you were to have had the direction of me and everything. I feel that I may safely ask you to bear me harmless.

Faithfully yours,

I was

J. A. FROUDE.

| The italios in this and the passage below are the author's, not Mr. Froude's.

As you place me in an official character I have written along with this a separate letter in semi-official stamp. I infer that you object not only to my speaking at the dinner, but to my presence there.

Am I right in this ?

St. George's Hotel : June 21. SIR, I have considered the objections which you laid before me when I informed you that I proposed to explain in public the purport of Lord Carnarvon's despatch. In the ambiguous position which I hold it would be improper for me to do anything which could have an unconstitutional semblance. I shall be called on, however, for explanations at home, and I must ask

you therefore to put in writing what you stated to me verbally, in a form which I can transmit to Lord Carnarvon.

I have the honour to be,

Your most faithful servant,
Hon. J. C. Molteno.

J. A. FROUDE.

Will you also kindly define for me, for my further guidance, what you conceive to be the limits of my constitutional freedom while I remain in this Colony?

Colonial Secretary's Office, Cape Town : June 22, 1875. SIR,—In reply to your semi-official communication of yesterday's date I can only reiterate my opinion that any explanation which, in the position you hold, you may wish to make to the people of this Colony as to the purport of Lord Carnarvon's despatch should not, from a constitutional point of view, apart from other reasons, be made otherwise than through the Colonial Government.

Beyond the expression of this opinion it seems unnecessary for me to attempt to define the limits of your constitutional freedom during your stay in this Colony.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,
J. A. Froude, Esq.

J. C. MOLTENO.1

Colonial Secretary's Office, Cape Town: June 22, 1875. MY DEAR MR. FROUDE,--The accompanying reply to your semi-official letter of yesterday will, I hope, suffice.

· Both this and the following note were submitted by Mr. Molteno to Sir H. Barkly and approved by him.

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