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without further difficulty in the course of the session. The principle for which he had contended of raising a police force was approved by Sir George Grey, and an Act for this purpose was passed in the same session for the payment of a force called the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police, which has since done such splendid work in the maintenance of peace and in the operations of war.

The Governor fully approved of the course adopted in regard to the Burgher Act and the Act for the Better Organisation of the Armed and Mounted Police Force,' and in reporting these measures to the Secretary of State he said : Your Lordship will be glad to hear how liberally the Cape Parliament has aided in providing for the defence of the frontier. I think in that respect they did all they could usefully have done. ...I should add that the Colonial Parliament did everything in reference to frontier defence that I asked them to do.''

In the person of Sir George Grey the Imperial Government had chosen a Governor and High Commissioner who was eminently fitted to foster and watch over the early days of representative government. He had been one of the explorers of Western Australia, and had successively held the positions of Governor of South Australia and of New Zealand, where he had displayed great skill, tact, and ability, particularly in his dealing with the native inhabitants of these countries. The selection by the Duke of Newcastle of this able, energetic, and liberal-minded man, with wide experience of colonial administration and with a firm belief in the capacity of the British colonists to govern themselves, was soon justified by the success which attended his administration in initiating the new form of government.

He invited the co-operation of the newly-established Legislature in his policy of developing the material resources of the country, and of extending civilised rule over the barbarous inhabitants of the eastern frontier. While in regard to the other European communities of South Africa he endeavoured to build up a system under which the various races in South Africa might with mutual advantage be constantly brought into frequent and permanent intercourse with each other as the civilised portions of the population spread further and further from the parent Colony.

| Despatches of 5th and 8th of June, 1855; Sir G. Grey to Lord Russell, Cape Parliamentary Papers, 1857.

The Colony was the main base for such extensive movements, and its aid was necessary for the establishment by means of public works of great lines of communication, and for the provision of other facilities towards the successful prosecution of its trade and commerce. Sir George Grey has expressed to the writer personally his great indebtedness to the constant and energetic support which he received in the Cape Parliament from Mr. Molteno in the carrying out of this policy, and with regard to the Parliament itself he has publicly expressed his acknowledgment of the large and generous aid which he derived from it.

One of the most striking acts, from the point of view of the Empire as a whole, during Sir George Grey's Governorship of the Cape was the manner in which he denuded the Colony of troops to aid the Government of India in coping with the tremendous crisis of the Mutiny. And an attack was made upon him in connection with his use of the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police owing to his action in sending on all the Imperial troops to India. Mr. Solomon had moved in the session of 1858 what was practically a vote of censure.

To this Mr. Molteno moved as an amendment that the Governor was fully warranted in employing the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police in the manner which he had done under the circumstances. He considered the adoption of the motion would be a censure upon Sir George Grey, and he urged that there was a complete justification for the use of these forces

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in the fact of the demand for the Imperial troops in India. The British Government had sent out troops, subsequently, and had granted 40,0001. per annum for the civilisation of Kaffraria, and when they were doing all that in the interests of the Colony, he thought the House should be careful in offering an opinion as to what had been done. It would be different if the Colony had undertaken to be responsible for its own defence. The principal debate of the session ensued upon this question and lasted for several days, but Mr. Molteno’s amendment was carried by an overwhelming majority.

In this same session we have evidence of the fairness and justice with which Mr. Molteno regarded the difficulties which beset the settlers in the outlying portions of South Africa. Upon a motion in regard to the Basuto war he deprecated a discussion on the respective merits of Boers and Basutos. An attempt had been made to insinuate that the Boers were entirely and completely to blame, and he thought that that was very unfair. The Boers could hardly help themselves, and he thought it a 'damning’ policy to show that the white people were split up among themselves while the natives combined. He said, “Don't condemn the farmers hastily without making any allowance for their peculiar position, and without looking to the fact that they are the safeguard of the Colony.' In his defence of these people Mr. Molteno came into collision with Mr. Solomon, and he spoke with much warmth.

Ever ready to defend representative institutions, he fired up when Mr. Darnell, a strong anti-responsible,'' moved for a return of the expenses of introducing and maintaining representative institutions in the Colony. Mr. Molteno did not oppose this, but wished to add that the returns should incorporate all the work done. He said he had himself made

Such was the familiar term applied at the Cape to the opponents of the introduction of responsible government.

up a return of the cost for five years which came to 50,0001., and taking the white inhabitants of the Colony at 300,000 it came to 3s. 4d. per head, or 8d. per annum, which he thought a very small tax compared with the value of the institutions possessed. When questions on the subject of finance and public expenditure were involved Mr. Molteno was always to the fore, and in the session of 1859 he took exception to the action of the Government in bringing in the estimates and financial statement for the year at so late a period of the session, as a practice which precluded the discussion and consideration which the importance of the subject demanded.

A system had grown up by which the Governor annually expended large sums in addition to those voted by the House. Bills were then sent down to the House to cover these payments. There was no Public Accounts Committee as there is to-day, and the Auditor-General's position was an entirely different one from that of the officer so named at the present time.

Mr. Molteno moved that the Governor be asked to inform the House when a separate and particular account of all moneys paid without being covered by the votes would be forthcoming; and further, that in the opinion of the House this should be done at the commencement of every session, with the particular reasons which led to the expenditure, and he referred to the fact that the Governor had promised last session that this should be done. He said that he looked upon the House as the guardian of the public purse and the controller of the general expenditure, but with the present system it was almost impossible for the House to exercise the control it should. The votes on the estimates were almost always largely exceeded. He had carefully gone through the accounts, the estimates of revenue and expenditure laid before the House, but could not find any reason given as promised or any explanation. To this the Government consented.

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CHAPTER V

STRUGGLE FOR RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT.

1860-63

Motion in favour of Responsible Government-Motion as to Finances agreed

to-Sir George Grey's Policy of Confederation-His Recall—Sir Philip Wodehouse Governor-Reactionary Policy-Two Great Questions-Responsible Government and Separation-Success of Representative InstitutionsSir George Grey's Views on Responsible Government-Financial TroublesRejection of Government Measures-Fresh Motion in favour of Responsible Government--Present System Unworkable-Easterns Oppose-Attack on Mr. Molteno.

We are now on the eve of the acutest phase of the struggle for responsible government at the Cape. In the session of 1860 Mr. Molteno moved for the first time a resolution affirming the necessity of the establishment of responsible government. The principle of this resolution was substantially followed in the Responsible Government Act of 1872:

That as it appears that the tenure on which the Executive Council at present holds office is incompatible with the satisfactory working of representative institutions, it is the opinion of this House that those officers should be qualified to be elected as members of either House of Parliament, and should hold office only so long as they possess the confidence of the Legislature.

Mr. Molteno said that in his opinion responsible government was absolutely requisite in order that the true interests of the Colony might be satisfactorily advanced. Some who agreed in the principle had formerly argued that its introduction was premature. He was, however, persuaded that many who had then opposed it were now convinced that it could no longer be delayed. Without denying that the present constitution had done good, yet he conceived that if they did not go on and complete their free institutions, they

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