Beyond Pleasure and Pain: How Motivation Works
How does motivation work? The classic answer is that people are motivated to approach pleasure and avoid pain, that they are motivated by "carrots and sticks." But to understand human motivation, it is necessary to go beyond pleasure and pain. What people want is to be effective in their life pursuits, and there are three distinct ways that people want to be effective. They want to be effective in having desired results (value), which includes having pleasure but is not limited to pleasure. They want to be effective in managing what happens (control) and in establishing what's real (truth), even if the process of managing what happens or establishing what's real is painful. These three distinct ways of wanting to be effective go beyond just wanting pleasure, but there is even more to the story of how motivation works. These ways of wanting to be effective do not function in isolation. Rather, they work together. Indeed, the ways that value, truth, and control work together is the central story of motivation. By understanding how motivation works as an organization of value, truth, and control motives, we can re-think basic motivational issues, such as the nature of personality and culture, how the motives of others can be managed effectively, and what is "the good life."
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action activity Adam and Eve anagram answer assessment concerns attain behavior believe Chapter choice cognitive commitment control effectiveness coping create culture desired results discussed eager emphasized engagement strength establishing what’s real evaluative evidence example extraversion failure feedback function future goal pursuit hedonic experience Higgins important incentives increase individuals involves Kruglanski likelihood functioning locomotion concerns managing what happens means Mischel motivational force negative norms ofthe outcomes Oxford English Dictionary participants people’s perceived personality Pierro pleasure and pain positive predicted preferences prevention focus prevention orientation promotion and prevention promotion orientation regulatory focus relation resist self-determination theory self-discrepancy theory self-efficacy self-regulation self-regulatory shared reality situation Social Psychology strategies strengthens engagement strong assessment strong locomotion stronger structure study found subjective expected utility success Superego target task temptation theory tion Trope truth and control truth effectiveness truth–control value effectiveness versus vigilant Walter Mischel well-being yogurt