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25. The names of objects that are neither males nor females.
Q. Of what gender is inkstand, and why ? 26. Neuter gender, because it is the name neither of a male nor female. Q. Of what gender is bench? why? chair? why?
Parent, you know, is the name either of father or mother, that is, it is a name common to both : of what gender, then, shall we call such nouns as parent, bird, &c. ?
27. Common gender.
28. The names of such animals as may be either males or females.
Q. Of what gender is sheep, and why?
29. Sheep is of the common gender, because it is the name either of a male or female.
Q. Of what gender is robin, and why?
30. Four--the masculine, the feminine, the neuter, and the common.
Q. Will you name a noun of the masculine gender ? one of the feminine ? one of the neuter ? one of the common ?
Q. Will you name the gender and number of each noun in the following sentences, as I read them to you?
“ James and William.”' “ Slate and pencil.”
IV. PROPER AND COMMON NOUNS.
Q. What is the meaning of the word common; as, “A common complaint” ?
31. Common means general.
Q. Although there are a vast many male children in the world, each ono may be called by the general name of boy: what kind of a noun, then, would you call boy?
32. A common noun.
Q. John, you know, is the particular name of a boy: what kind of a noun, then, may it be called ?"
35. A proper noun.
37. Susan is a proper noun, because it is a particular name.
Q. What kind of a noun is John, and why?
Q. What kind of a noun is river, and why?
38. River is a common noun, because it is a general name.
Q. How many kinds of nouns do there appear to be, and what are they?
Q. What kind of a noun is girls ? Mary? town? New York ? London? boat ? chain?
Q. Will you now tell me which words are the nouns in the following sentences; which are proper, and which common; also their gender and number?
- Thomas and John." “King and queen.” “ Susan and Mary.”
“ House and barn."
Q. When a person, in speaking, says, “ I, John, will do it," what person do grammarians call Jóhn?
39. The first person. Q. When, then, is a noun of the first person ? 40. When it is the name of the person speaking:
Q: When I say, “ James, mind your studies," what person do grammarians call James ?
41. The second person, being the person spoken to. Q. When, then, is a noun of the second
42. When it is the name of the person spoken to, or addressed.
Q. “William, James has come.” What person is William, and why?
43. Of the second person, because Willianı is spoken to.
Q. When I say, “ William, James has come,” I am speaking to William about James : of what person, then, is James, and why?
44. Of the third person, because James was spoken of; that is, I was talking about James.
Q. When, then, is a noun of the third person ? 45. When it is spoken of.
Q. “Thomas, Rufus is in the garden.” What person is Thomas ? why? Is Rufus ? why?
Q. How many persons do nouns appear to have, and what are they? 46. Three persons—the first, second, and third. Q. Will you inform me which of the following nouns are proper,
which common; also their gender, number, and person ?
“I, James, of Boston.” “ Boy and girl.” “Henry, study your book." “ William and his sister.'
Q. We say of an animal, for instance a horse, when he is fal, that “He is in a good case”; and, when he is lean, that "He is in a bad case": what, therefore, does the word case mean?
47. Case means condition, state, &c.
Q. When I say, " Charles strikes William," " William strikes Charles,* you may perceive that the state or condition of Charles in the former example is quite different from his state or condition in the latter : in the one, Charles strikes; in the other, he is struck : what, then, is meant by the different cases of nouns ?
48. The different condition or position they have in relation to other words in the same sentence.
Q. What does the word nominative mean? 49. Nominative means naming:
Q. When I say, “ John strikes," he evidently does something: what, then, may John be called ?
50. An actor or doer.
Q. Well, then, as the actor or doer is considered the naming or leading noun, in what case is John, when I say, “ John strikes" ?
51. In the nominative case.
53. Dog is in the nominative case, because it is the agent, actor, or doer.
“ The cat catches inice.” In what case is cát, and why? Q. When I say, “ Thomas is pursuing the thief,” what is the object here which Thomas is pursuing ?
54. Thief. Q. What does the word objective mean? 55. It means belonging to the object. \Q. In what case, then, may thief be reckoned, in the phrase, “ Thomas pursues the thief" ?
56. In the objective case. Q. What, then, does the objective case denote? 57. The objective case denotes the object. Q. When I say, “ William ships John," in what case is John, and why?
58. In the objective case, because John is the object.
Q. What does the word possessive imply? 59. Possession, ownership, property, &c. Q. When I say, “ It is John's slate," I mean to say that John owns the ate: in what case, then, shall we reckon John's ?
60. In the possessive case.
Q. When I say, “ Peter's knife," who owns or possesses the knife ?
62. In the possessive case, because Peter possesses the knife.
Q. In the example “ John's slate,” you perceive that John's ends in with a comma before it : what is the comma, and what is the
called in granimar ? 63. The comma is called an apostrophe, and the s, an apostrophic s.
Q. You also perceive that John's is singular: how, then, do nouns in the singular number usually form their possessive case ?
64. By taking after them an apostrophe with the letter s following it.
Q. "On eagles' wings.” Here eagles' is plural, and in the possessive case : how, then, do nouns in the plural usually form their possessive case ?
65. Simply by taking the apostrophe without the addition of s.
Q. But if the plural noun does not end in s, as, “men's concerns,” how is the possessive case formed ?
66. As the same case in the singular number is formed.
Q. From the foregoing remarks, how many cases do nouns appear to have, and what are they?
67. Three-the nominative, possessive and objective.
Q. Decline sometimes means to vary the endings of a word: what, then, do I mean when I ask you to decline a noun ?
68. To tell its different cases or endings.
69. Nominative case, John.
71. By coat, because it follows William's. Q. What, then, may be considered a rule for governing the possessive
RULE I. The possessive case is governed by the following
noun. Q.“ William's hat.” Is William's a proper or common noun? Why? (36.)*
Q. What is its person ? why? (45.)* Its number ? why? (8.)* Its gender? why? (17.)** Its case ? why? (61.)* What noun follows 'William's ? What word, then, governs William's? What is the rule ?
Q. When we mention the several properties of the different words in sentonces, in the same manner as we have those of William's, above, what is the exercise called ? 72. PARSING.
EXERCISES IN PARSING.
" John's knife.” 73. John's is a NOUN, because it is a name—PROPER, because it is a particular name—MASCULINE GENDER ; it is the name of a male-THIRD PERSON; it is spoken of-SINGULAR
* Refer back to this number.
NUMBER; it means but one-POSSESSIVE CASE; it implies possession-and it is governed by the noun knife, accord
RULE I. The possessive case is governed by the following
Knife is a noun; it is a name—COMMON; it is a general name-NEUTER GENDER; it is neither male nor female THIRD PERSON; it is spoken of_SINGULAR NUMBER; it means
Let the learner parse the foregoing, till the mode of parsing the noun is so familiar to him, that he can do it readily, without looking in the book. He may then take the following exercises, which are to be parsed in a similar manner.
EXERCISES IN PARSING CONTINUED. Peter's cap."
“ Stephen's coat.” • Brother's knife" " John's slate." “ Father's house."
• Boys' hats."
VII. OF ARTICLES. Q. When I say,
“Give me a book," I evidently mean no particular book, but when I say, “Give me the book," what do I mean?
74. Some particular book.
77. Articles are words placed before nouns to limit their meaning.
Q. What is the meaning of the word definite ? 78. Definite means particular.
Q. “Give me the book.” Here a particular book is referred to : what kind of an article, then, shall we call the?
79. Definite article.
80. It points out what particular thing or things are meant.
Q. The word in, when placed before words, frequently signifies not : what, then, will indefinite mean?
81. Not definite.
Q. When I say, “Give me a knife," no particular knife is meant : what kind of an article, then, may a be called?
82. Indefinite article. Q. Why is it so called ?
83. Because it is not used before the name of any particular person or thing