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Q. We say " an apple," an inkstand,” &c. in preference to " a apple e inkstand,"

,” &c.: why is this? 34. Because it is easier to speak, and also more pleasant to the ear.

Q. What kind of letters do apple and inkstand begin with ? 85. Vowels. Q. In what cases do we use an instead of a ? 86. Before words beginning with the vowels a, e, i,

0, U.

use a?

Q. In speaking, we say, a man,” not "an man”: when, then, do we 87. Before words beginning with consonants. Q. Which letters are consonants ?

88. All the letters of the alphabet, except the vowels, which are a, e, i, o, u; and also w and y, except at the beginning of words, when they are consonants

Q. How, then, do a and an differ?

89. Only in their use; a being used before consonants, and an before vowels: both are called by the same name.

Q. How many articles do there appear to be, and what are they? 90. Two—a or an, and the.

Q. It is customary to say, a boy," not“ a boys"; also, "an inkstand," not“ an inkstands: of what number, then, must the noun be, before whića the indefinite article is placed ?

91. The singular number.
Q. What, then, is the rule for the indefinite article ?

The indefinite article A or AN belongs to nouns

of the singular number. Q. We can say, “the boy,” and “the boys"; using a noun either of tho singular or plural number after the : what, then, is the rule for the definite article ?

The definite article the belongs to nouns in the

singular or plural number.

The boy." 92. The is an ARTICLE, a word placed before nouns to limit their meaning—DEFINITE; it means a particular boy~ and belongs to boy, according to

Rule III. The definite article the belongs to nouns of the singular or plural number.

Boy is a noun; it is a name-COMMON; it is a general name-MASCULINE GENDER; it is the name of a male-THIRD PERSON ; it is spoken of and SINGULAR NUMBER ; it means

but one.

EXERCISES IN PARSING CONTINUED. "A hand." “An eagle.” “ The man." The boys' hats." •A man. An insect." - The men.”

A man's cap.” "A mite." An acorn." “The boys.” “The girls' room.” “A month.” “An ounce." “ The mice."' « The lady's box."


Q. When I say, “ John is an obedient, industrious, and good boy," I use certain words to describe boy: which are they?

93. Industrious, obedient, and good.

Q: When I say, “a good man," to what word is the describing word good joined or added ?

94. To the noun man.
Q. What does the word adjective mean?
95. Joined or added to.

Q: What, then, shall we call such describing words as good, obedient, industrious, &c. ?

Q. What, then, are adjectives?

97. Adjectives are words joined to nouns to describe or qualify them.

Q. "A wise man.” Which word is the adjective here, and why?

Q. “Rusus is a good boy, but James is a better one. How are Rufus and James spoken of here?

93. In comparison with each other.

Q. The alljectives in the last example are good and better : can you tell me which of these words denotes a higher degree of excellence than the other ?

99. The word better.
Q. What degree of comparison, then, shall we call better?
100. Comparative degree."
Q. What, then, does the comparative degree imply?
101. A comparison between two.

Q. “William is tall, Thomas is taller, but Rufus is the tallest boy in school." What is meant here by tallest?

102. Exceeding all in height.
Q. What does the word superlative mean?
103. Exceeding all; the highest or lowest degree.
Q. What degree of comparison, then, shall we call tallest ?
104. Superlative degree.
Q. What, then, does the superlative degree do?

105. It increases or lessens the positive to the highest or lowest degree.

Q. When I say, “ James is a good boy," I make no comparison between him and any other; but simply assert, in a positive manner, that James is a good boy. What kind of a sentence, then, would you call this ?

106. A positive sentence.
Q. Of what degree of comparison, then, shall we call good ?
107. The positive degree.

better men,

Q. What, then, does the positive degree do?
108. It merely describes, without any comparison.
Q. Will you compare great ?

109. “ Positive, great; Comparative, greater; Superlative, greatest.”

Q. Will you compare wise in the same manner ?

Q. Wise and great are words of one syllable: how, then, are the com. parative and superlative degrees of words of this sort formed ?

110. By adding x or er, st or est, to the positive.
Q. Will you in this manner compare small ? high? mean?
Q. Will you compare beautiful ?

111. « Pos. beautiful; Comp. more beautiful; Sup most beautiful.”

Q. How many syllables compose the word beautiful? 112. Three

Q. How, then, are words of three, or more syllables than one, usually compared ?

113. By placing more and most before the positive.
Q. Will you in this manner compare industrious ? ingenious ? dutiful?
Q. Will you compare wise, by using the words less and least ?
114. “ Pos. wise ; Comp. less wise; Sup. least wise.”
Q. Will you in like manner compare benevolent ? distinguished ? dilatory?
Q. “Good

best men.” Which adjective here is the positive, and why? (108.) Which the comparative ? why? (101.) Which the superlative ? why? (105.)

Q. Good, you perceive, is not compared regularly, like great, beautiful,
&c.; and since there are many words of this description, I wisl give you a list
of the principal ones, together with others, regularly compared: will you re-
peat the comparative and superlative degrees, as I name the positive ?'
115. Positive.

Comparative. Superlative.




Much, or many,


Bad, ill, or evil,




Nearcst, or next.


Oldest, or eldest.


Latest, or last. Q. From the foregoing, how many degrees of comparison do there appear to be, and what are they?

1'16. Three-the positive, comparative, and superlative.

Q. Adjectives, you recollect, describe nouns : to what, then, do they natu rally belong?

Adjectives belong to the nouns which they describe.


A wiser child." 117. A is an ARTICLE, a word placed before nouns to limit their meaning—INDEFINITE; it means no particular child and belongs to child, agreeably to

Rule II. The indefinite article a or an belongs to nouns of the singular number.

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Wiser is an ADJECTIVE, a word joined with a noun to describe it--"Pos. wise; Comp. wiser ; Sup. wisest”-made in the comparative degree—and belongs to child, by

Rule IV. Adjectives belong to the nouns which they describe.

Child is a NOUN; it is a name -COMMON; it is a general nameCOMMON GENDER;


be either male or female THIRD PERSON; it is spoken of and SINGULAR NUMBER; it means but one.


3. • A dutiful son." An ugly child."

6. The base man." “ An idle boy." " An irksome task." 6. The whiter cloth." “ A foolish son." “ A mild reply.”

“ The milder weather.” 4.

5. “ The greatest man.” “The more (1) benevolent citizen." “ The wisest prince.” “ The most (1) suitable method.” « The noblest man." “The least (1) distrustful friend." 6.

7. “A large, convenient, and “The last choice." (1) airy habitation."

« The best man.”
“The intelligent, industri- “The nearest relations."

ous, obedient, and (1) “ Johnson's (2) large dictionary.”
docile scholar." “Murray's small grammar.”

IX. OF PRONOUNS. Q. When I say,“ John goes to school, John learns fast, and John will exe cel,” how can I speak so as to avoid repeating John so often?

'118. By using the word he in its place; thus, “ John goes to school, he learns fast, and he will excel."

Q. What little word, then, may stand for John ?
119, He.
Q. What does the word pronoun mean?
120. Standing for, or instead of, a noun.
Q. What, then, shall we call the word he, above ?
Q. What, then, is a pronoun ?

122. A pronoun is a word used for a noun, to avoid a repetition of the same word.

Q. When James says, “ I will study," you perceive that I stands for the person speaking: what person, then, is it? (39.).

Q. When I say, “ James, you must study," the word you evidently is applied to James, who is spoken to : whai person, then, ought you to be ?

123. The second person.

1. To be omitted in parsing. 2. Johnson's is governed by dictionary, by Rule I.

Q. When I say, "He (meaning William) should learn," what person ought he to be, and why?

124. The third person; because it stands in the place of a noun which is spoken of.

Q. If I invariably stands for the first person, you for the second, and he for the third, how can we tell the different persons of pronouns ?

125. By the pronouns themselves.
Q. What have these pronouns been called from this circumstance ?
126. Personal pronouns.

U I will now give you a list of all the personal pronouns, which you must first examine carefully, and then answer such questions on them as may be

asked you.




Nom. I.
Poss. My or mine.
Obj. Me.

Ours or our



Ye or you.
Yours or your.


Nom. Thou or you.
Poss. Thine or thy, yours or your.
Obj. Thee or you.


Plur. .
Nom. 'He.

They. Poss. His.

Theirs or their.
Obj. Him.


Nom. She.

They. Poss. Hers or her.

Theirs or their.
Obj. Her.


Nom. It.

They. Poss. Its.

Theirs or their.
Obj. It.

Q. Will you decline 1 in both numbers ? thou or you? he? she ? it?

Q. In what person, number, and case is I? we? my? mine ? our or ours ? nie? 148 ? thou ? ye? his ? they? them?

Q: In what gender, person, number, and case is he? she? it? his ? hers ? her? him?

Q. How many numbers do pronouns appear to have, and what are they? 128. Two-the singular and plural. Q. How many cases, and what are they ?

129. Three--the nominative, the possessive, and the objective.

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