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satisfactorily settled between trial prosperity will arrest the the owners and the miners growth of Communism. themselves, by districts, and The object of this article, as without any attempt at a its title indicated, is to put national agreement.

forward a considered opinion reWhere Labour disputes and garding the future prospects of unrest are concerned, the coun- British industry under the contry does not want temporary ditions which we believe must or emergency measures. It inevitably arise, and towards desires permanent and effec- which we are already drifting. tive legislation, to place trade To do this accurately, it has unions on a basis of equality been necessary first to consider with other sections of the com- the deplorable state into which munity, and to bring all politi- most of our staple industries cal firebrands and revolution- have fallen, and the circumaries within the arm of the law. stances which have brought Responsible and law - abiding about that condition. citizens have been patiently We propose now to turn to the waiting nearly two years for more agreeable task of considerthe Government to introduce ing the mandate which the Govsuitable legislation of this char- ernment received from the counacter, and they feel that it try to carry out measures for would have been an easy matter safeguarding home industries, to have done this immediately for developing Imperial Preferafter the elections, when the ence, and means for Empire country expected it. To-day settlement. It is in these direcvehement opposition may be tions that the only true and anticipated from the Labour lasting solution of our national Party, but the Government difficulties will be found. should not be deterred by that Facts to which we have alfact. Mr Baldwin must realise ready referred indicate that the by this time that Labour can- Government has not entirely not be fought with the gloves ignored this mandate, and we on, and that friendly overtures have quoted figures to show and concessions are only re- how the small measures of garded as signs of weakness. Imperial Preference and ProHe can, however, rely on the tection which they have added staunch support of all Con- to the Statutes have already servatives, not only in Parlia- reacted favourably on our balment but throughout the coun- ance of trade. What has been try, for it is generally realised done hitherto, however, falls to-day that without definite very short of Joseph Chamberlegislation to prevent fanatical lain's ideals. His contention idealists and revolutionaries was that a genuine balance of from poisoning the minds of trade could only be maintained children and callow youths, when we purchased all imported not even the return of indus- foodstuffs within the Empire.

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It is not our intention to formerly available from these overload this article with sta- “invisible exports ” for investtistics in support of Mr Cham- ment abroad—which was once berlain's views. These are ob- our reserve fund for contintainable from many sources, gencies-had shrunk almost to one of the most interesting vanishing point. The solution being a book, first published of our difficulties, according to about two years ago, entitled Mr Malcolmson, Mr Grondona, 'The Kangaroo Keeps on Talk- and a host of other authorities ing,' by L. St Clare Grondona, who have made a special study with an introduction by Mr of the problem, is co-operation Baldwin. The author deals in with our overseas Dominions a readable and attractive way and Colonies on the basis of an with the economic facts of Empire policy of food supplies, Empire Preference in relation to as originally proposed by Mr the vexed question of foodstuffs, Chamberlain. This policy does

. and quotes figures, chiefly in not involve any curtailment relation to Australia, which of our home food production. ought to

remove most of On the contrary, it aims at the misconceptions that have building up a skilled and robust hitherto obscured the vision agricultural community in the of many people on this vital Mother Country, and the war matter. In more recent came as a timely reminder of publication by V. A. Malcolm- this necessity. In 1914, we son, entitled “National Exist- were only growing every year ence or Starvation,' and issued enough wheat to keep us for by the Empire Industries Asso- sixty days. To meet the desciation, attention is specially perate emergency of the war drawn to the present position the amount was, with great of this country in the matter difficulty, increased, until in of its own food production. 1918 we were producing enough It is stated by the author that wheat to keep us for one hunwe have now to pay annually dred days, and now the amount about 500 millions for food- is back once again to a supply stuffs imported from overseas, for sixty days. Such is the and we can only provide that way we have taken to heart sum by selling other goods to one of the most vital lessons the nations of the world. We of the war ! have already pointed out that There are very few authoriin actual commercial exchange ties who contend that it is an last year we had to find 400 economical proposition for this millions more than we realised country to attempt to produce by the sale of goods abroad, all its own bread and meat the adverse balance being made supplies. Such a policy might up from the sources known as

us against starvation “invisible exports." We also in the event of another great showed how the large surplus war, but even if it were possible, it would take years to duty on certain Empire supaccomplish.

secure

plies, so long as the British Mr Malcolmson's view is that consumer paid no more for his it would suffice to aim at a home food than he does at present, production of one-third of our the most bigoted of free-fooders total food requirements. That would find himself devoid of was the position to which we arguments against Imperial Prehad practically attained in 1918, ference. On the other hand, if and it ought never to have been the Empire supply policy did lost. It means that if by en- involve a slight increase in the couraging Empire settlement, cost of certain food essentials, the population of the Mother his arguments would not hold Country can be maintained at water against the enormous about its present level, we advantages which would result should have to import annually from the adoption of that food supplies to the value of policy. It would secure a perabout 400 millions, and the manent and rapidly developing policy proposed, of which the market within the Empire for broad outlines appear to have British manufactures, and it is been already laid down at previ- surely infinitely better for our ous Imperial Conferences, is that workpeople to find regular emthe whole of this amount should ployment at good wages, even be expended in the markets of if food costs a little more, than the Empire in return for the to exist on the dole as an anpurchase from us of our own nual charge on the community. manufactures. The prices for Then, by agreeing to buy our wheat and meat within the food supplies within the Empire, Empire and the conditions we shall do more, at one stroke, necessary to exclude, or limit, to consolidate that wonderful foreign supplies would periodic- commonwealth of nations than ally be adjusted at each Im- all the platitudes regarding the perial Conference with the bonds of kinship in which our object of stabilising the market. politicians have indulged durMr Grondona quotes facts and ing the last twenty years.

. figures to prove that, by thus Furthermore, with a free interobtaining our supplies from change of commodities within Imperial sources, outside the the Empire, each Dominion influence of foreign marketing will be more disposed to deorganisations, the cost of food- velop its natural resources, and stuffs to the British consumer thus provide suitable employwould actually be reduced, in ment for British emigrants, which case it would not be than to strive for autonomy unreasonable to employ any by establishing industries which saving thus effected to build already exist, and can be more up our own cruelly depleted economically conducted, in agricultural products. Even if other parts of the Empire. this involved a small import In our principal dominions there

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has been a marked tendency the Empire, whilst the main this latter direction of late chinery which at present deals years. It is the natural out with this important matter come of our persistent rejection must be greatly simplified and of Imperial Preference in re- speeded up. lation to our food supplies, Finally, there is the question and the longer we maintain of retaliation. We are told by that suicidal attitude, the Free Traders that if we instiweaker our hold on the Empire tute Empire trading foreign must become. It is, therefore, countries will retaliate by withearnestly to be hoped that a drawing all “favoured nation" definite Empire policy of food privileges, and by boycotting supply will be agreed upon at our goods. The answer is that the Conference now being held, under Free Trade, as we have and that it will subsequently already shown, our exports to be pressed upon

the Im- foreign countries have been perial Government. If that steadily dwindling, and even is done, we venture to predict many Free Traders are beginthat the Conference will be ning to admit that it is time gratefully remembered for all Protection in some form should time as having laid the founda- be given a trial. tion of a policy full of infinite certain that, whether we safepossibilities for the good of this guard our industries or not, country and the British Empire. foreign countries will continue

We have not said much in this to buy from us only what they article about Protection-or, as find it necessary to buy, and we now prefer to call it, the we can well afford to lose the Safeguarding of Home Indus- mythical “favoured nation” tries, -as that is a natural privileges, for in a protective corollary to Imperial Prefer- tariff we should have a far ence. We have, however, shown more valuable economic instruthat, to the limited extent to ment for clinching bargains, on which it has been adopted, equal terms, with other prosafeguarding has produced re- tected countries. sults so entirely satisfactory Twenty years ago Mr Chamthat they amply justify its berlain pointed out that whilst further extension. This should our Colonies bought more from be on the broad lines that to

us every year, the more we keep our factories and plants bought from foreign countries, reasonably occupied, and thus the less they bought from us. to keep unemployment at a To encourage Colonial trade low figure, safeguarding is re- was therefore to encourage our quired against the free importa- own export trade, but this was tion from foreign countries of not true of foreign trade. This all goods, either finished or opinion of a great Colonial partly finished, which can be Secretary has been amply corproduced equally well within roborated by subsequent exVOL. CCXX.-NO. MCCCXXXIII.

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perience, and would no doubt tion of our workers to national be endorsed by the present ruin, and the dissolution of the holder of that office, whose Empire ; the other leads to privilege it may yet be to prosperity, strength, and greatcarry through the policy which ness beyond anything that the Mr Chamberlain so ably advo- world has yet seen or dreamed cated. There is every reason of. How long are we to fumble at any rate to believe that Mr and hesitate before we have Amery is imbued with the same the courage to take up again a spirit. Writing to the Times'

great policy in the spirit of in 1924, strongly condemning the great leader who first prothe late Government's action claimed it ? in withdrawing the M'Kenna We do not think we can close Duties, our present Colonial this article on a better note Secretary concluded his letter than these stirring words of as follows:

our present Colonial Secretary. “ It is no use fencing for ever We have reached the parting with great issues. Our choice of the ways, and if the Governas a people has got to be made, ment will pursue the road indiand made soon, between free cated by Mr Amery, which trade on the one side, and a leads to National and Imperial policy of National and Imperial development, we are confident development on the other. The that they can count on the one leads through industrial sympathy and support of the stagnation and the progressive vast majority of their countrypauperisation and demoralisa- men.

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