All Or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust, 1941-1943
When Nazi Germany and fascist Italy were united, both had savage racial laws; Hitler and Mussolini viciously denounced the Jewish manace. In the Second World War Jews who fell into the hands of the German army were consigned almost without exception for the death camps, not one Jew who came under the control of the Italian army ended there. The Italian officers protected not just Italian Jews, but Jewish refugees of every nationality. To the Germans, their actions were inexplicable and subversive.
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2a Armata 2nd Army ADAP Agram Allied Ambassador Ambrosio anti-Semitic April August Axis partner BA MA RH Badoglio Balkans BAMA Bastianini Berlin Bottai Brutal Friendship carabinieri Castellani Cavallero cetniks Ciano Colonel Comando Supremo concentration camps Croatian Dalmatia December Diario Storico diplomats documents Ducci Duce ebrei fascist February Field Marshall Fiihrer final solution forces Foreign Office France French Fuhrer Geloso German Foreign Giuseppe Goebbels Diaries Grandi Greece Greek Himmler Hitler holocaust human ibid Italian army Italian Foreign Ministry Italian Jews Italian zone Italy January Jewish question July knew Lohr London Mackensen March Mario Roatta Milan military Minister murder Mussolini Nazi never November OB West occupied October Ortona Palazzo Pietromarchi Pirelli police political regime Reich reported Ribbentrop Rintelen Roatta Rochlitz Rome Russian Salonica save Jews September 1942 Serbs SME US DS story Supreme Command territory tion told Ustasi Vichy Wehrmacht wrote Yugoslavia Zagreb zone of occupation