## Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Volume 4American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2001 - Arctic regions |

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Page 67

... y is the limit plasticity , r is the

endurance limit , mis the material characteristic . The stress amplitude Ogi takes

into account stress concentration due to the pipe wall defects and is calculated as

...

... y is the limit plasticity , r is the

**coefficient**of load cycle asymmetry , O . , is theendurance limit , mis the material characteristic . The stress amplitude Ogi takes

into account stress concentration due to the pipe wall defects and is calculated as

...

Page 79

Such equation is also often used to find the overall heat transfer

pipelines by means of cool - down tests . This paper summarizes the limitations of

conventional thermal model used in pipelines and proposes a new model based

...

Such equation is also often used to find the overall heat transfer

**coefficient**ofpipelines by means of cool - down tests . This paper summarizes the limitations of

conventional thermal model used in pipelines and proposes a new model based

...

Page 110

RSSDRESEM Calculated Data S SB SEBENBERBMsamams

wlisolation

Heat ...

RSSDRESEM Calculated Data S SB SEBENBERBMsamams

**Coefficient**" K2 "wlisolation

**Coefficient**" K2 * nisolation**Coefficient**" K oil "**Coefficient**RK st "**Coefficient**" K su**Coefficient**" K ins " Reynolds Number Prandu Number OverHeat ...

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analysis applied approach Arctic assessment axial bending buckle cable calculated carrier cause coefficient collapse combination compared Conference considered corrosion cost crack damage defect depth detailed determined developed diameter displacement distribution dynamic effect elastic element Engineering equation experimental factor failure field Figure flexible flow flowline fluid force foundation fracture function geometry given grooves heat increase initial inspection installation internal lateral layer length limit liner load material maximum measured Mechanics method observed obtained occur Offshore operation parameters performed phase pipe pipeline position predicted presented pressure production range ratio reduced relation resistance respectively response riser risk sand seabed shown shows simulation soil solution specimens steel strain strength stress structure surface Table temperature tests thermal thickness values wave wrinkle