« PreviousContinue »
one of the best persons, and into the court of one No matter, Cowlev; let proud Fortune see, of the best princesses, of the world. Now, though That thou canst her despise no less than she does I was here engaged in ways most contrary to
thee, the original design of my life, that is, into much Let all her gifts the portion be company, and no small business, and into a dai- Of fully, lust, and Aattery. ly sight of greatness, both militant and trium
Fraud, extortion, calumnny, phant (for that was the state then of the English Murder, inti lelity, and French corirts); vet all this was so far from
Rebellion, and hypocrisy. alterins my opinion, thatit oaly adıld the con- Do thou not griere por blush to be, firmation of reason to that which was before but As all th' inspired tunefulmen, natural inclination. I saw plainly all the paint Avclall thy great forefathers, were, from Homer of that kind of life, the nearer ( caine to it; and
down to Ben. that beauty, which I did not fall in love with, #hen, for aught I knew, it was real, was not like However by the failing of the forces which I to bewitch or entice me, when I saw that it was had expected, I did not quit the design which I adulterate. I met with several great per- had resolved on ; I cast myself into it a cory's sons, whom I liked very well ; but could not perdu, without making capitulations, or taking perceive that any part of their greatness was to counsel of Fortune. But God laughs at a mal', be liked or desired, no more than I would be glad who says to his soul, “ Take thy ease:” I met or content to be in a storm, though I saw many presently not only with many little incumbrar:ships which rid safely and bravely in it; a storm ces and impediments, but with so much sickne:s Fould not agree with my stomach, if it did with a new misfortune to me) as would have spoilet my courage. Though I was in a crowd of as the happiness of an emperor as well as mine: god company as could be found any where ; yet I do neither repent, nor alter my course. though I was in business of great and honourable Non ego perfiduin dixi sacramentum: nothing trust; though I eat at the best table, and enjoy- shall separate me from a mistress which I have ed the best conveniences for present subsistence loved so long, and have now at last married ; that ought to he desired by a man of my condi- though she neither has brought me a rich po.tion in banishment and public distresses; yet I tion, nor lived yet so quietly with me as I bopei could not abstain from renewing my old school- from her : bry's wish, in a copy of verses to the same effect:
-Nec vos, dulcissima mundi
Nomina, vos Musæ, libertas, otia, libri, Well then *; I now do plainly see
Hortique, silvæque, animâ remanente, relinThis busy world and I shall ne'er agree, &c.
quam. And I never then proposed to myself any other
Nor by me e'er shall you, advantage from his majesty's happy restoration You, of all names the sweetest and the best, bat the getting into some moderately convenient You Muses, books, and liberty and rest; retreat in the country; which I thought in that You, gardens, fields, and woods, forsaken be, case I might easily have compassed, as well as As long as life itself forsakes not me. some others, with no greater probabilities or pretences, have arrived to extraordinary fortunes :
But this is a very pretty ejaculation. — Becausa but I had before written a shrewd prophecy | I have concluded all the other chapters with :? against myself; and I think Apollo inspired me copy of verses, I will maintain the humour to in the truth, though not in the elegance, of the last.
“ Thou neither great at court, nor in the war,
MARTIAL, Lib. X. Epigr. xlvii.
Vitam que faciunt beati vrem Sc.
SINCE, dearest friend, 'tis your desire to see
A true receipt of happiness from me;
These are the chief ingredients, if not all:
Take an estate neither too great or small,
Which quantuin sufficit the doctors cail:
Let this estate from parents' care descend; But I was born for love, and for a Muse.
The getting it too much of life does spend :
Take such a ground whose gratitude may be With Fate what boots it to contend?
A fair encouragement for industry.
Let constant fires the winter's fury tame;
And let thy kitchen's be a vestal flame.
Thee to the town let never suit at law,
And rarely, very rarely, business, draw.
In undisturbed peace, yet not in sleep.
Without which all the composition's vain.
In the same weight prudence and innocence take, | Hic sparge flores, sparge breres rosas
Nam vita gaudet mortua floribus
Vatis adhuc cinerem calentem.
A PROPOSITION FOR
THE AD And not lust, recommend to thee thy bed.
VANCEMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL
That the philosophical college be situated with
don; and, if it be possible to find that convenience Martial, Lib. X. Epigr. xcvi.
upon the side of the river, or very near it.
That the revenue of this college amount to four Sæpe loquar nimium gentes, &c. thousand pounds a year.
That the company received into it be as follows: ME, who have liv'd so long among the great, 1. Twenty philosophers or professors. 2. Six. You wonder to bear talk of a retreat :
teen young scholars, servants to the professors. And a retreat so distant as may show
3. A chaplain. 4. A bailiff for the revenue. 5. A No thoughts of a retum, when once I go.
manciple or purveyor for the provisions of the Give me a country, how remote so er,
house. 6. Two gardeners. 7. A master-cooke Where happiness a moderate rate does bear, 8. An under-cook. 9. A butler.
10. An under Where poverty itself in plenty flows,
butler. 11. A surgeon. 12. Two lungs, or chyAnd all the solid use of riches knows. (there; mical servants. 13. A library-keeper, who is
The ground about the house maintains it, likewise to be apothecary, druggist, and keeper The house maintains the ground about it, here; of instruments, engines, &c. 14. An officer ta Here even hunger's dear; and a full board feed and take care of all beasts, fowl, &c. kept Devours the vital substance of the lord.
by the college. 15. A groom of the stable. 16. The land itself does there the feast bestow, A messenger, to send up and down for all uses The land itself must here to market go.
of the college. 17. Four old women, to tend the Three or four suits one winter here does waste, chambers, keep the house clean, and such-like One suit does there three or four winters last, services, Here every frugal man must oft be cold,
That the annual allowance for this company be And little luke-warm fires are to you sold. as follows: 1. To every professor, and to the There fire's an element, as cheap and free, chaplain, one hundred and twenty pounds. %. Almost, as any of the other three.
To the sixteen scholars, twenty pounds apiece ; Stay you then here, and live among the great, ten pounds for their diet, and ten pounds for their Attend their sports and at their tables eat. entertainment. 3. To the bailiff, thirty pounds, When all the bounties here of men you score, besides allowance for his journies. 4. To the The place's bounty there shall give me more. purveyor, or manciple, thirty pounds. 5. To
each of the gardeners, twenty pounds. 6. To the master-cook, twenty pounds. 7. To the
under-cook, four pounds. 8. To the butler, ten EPITAPHIUJI VIVI AUCTORIS.
pounds. 9. To the under-butler, four pounds.
10. To the surgeon, thirty pounds. Hic, o viator, sub lare parvulo
library-keeper, thirty pounds.
12. To each of Couleius hic est conditus, hic jacet;
the lungs, twelve pounds. 13. To the keeper Defunctis humani laboris Sorte, supervacuâqe vitâ.
Ingenious men delight in dreams of reforma
tion.—In comparing this Proposition of Cowley, Non indecorâ pauperie nitens,
with that of Milton, addressed to Mr. Hartlib, Et non inerti nobilis otio,
we find that these great poets bad amused themVanóque dilectis popello
selves with some exalted, and, in the main, cute Divitiis animosus hostis,
genial fancies, on the subject of education: that,
of the two plaus proposed, this of Mr. Cowley Possis ut illam dicere inortuum ;
was better digested, and is the less fanciful; if a En terra jam nunc quantula sufficit !
preference, in this respect, can be given to either, Exempta sit curis, viator.
when both are manifestly Utopian: and that our Terra sit illa levis, precare.
universities, in their present form, are well enough calculated to answer all the reasonable ends of
such institutions; provided we allow for the uns See a translation of this Epitaph among the avoidable defects of them, when drawn out into poems of Mr. Addison.
11. To the
of the beasts, six pounds, 14. To the groom, that in the middle there be a parterre of flow. five pounds. 15. To the messenger, twelve ers and a fountain. pounds. 16. To the four necessary women, ten
That the second quadrangle, just behind the pounds. For the manciple's table, at which all first, be so contrived, as to contain these parts : the servants of the house are to eat, except the 1. A chapel. 2. A hall, with two long tables un scholars, one hundred and sixty pounds. For each side, for the scholars and officers of the house three horses for the service of the college, thirty to eat at, and with a pulpit and forms at the pounds.
end for the public lectures. 3. A large and pleaAll which amounts to three thousand two sant dining-room within the hall, for the profeshundred eighty-five pounds. So that there re- sors to eat in, and to hold their assemblies and mains for keeping of the house and gardens, and conferences. 4. A public school-house. 5. A operatories, and instruments, and animals, and library. 6. A gallery to walk in, adorned experiments of all sorts, and all other expenses,
with the pictures or statues of all the inventors seven hundred and fifteen pounds.
of any thing useful to human life; as printing, Which were a very inconsiderable sum for guns, America, &c. and of late in anatomy, the the great uses to which it is designed, but that circulation of the blood, the milky veins, and I conceive the industry of the college will in such like discoveries in any art, with short elogies, a short time so enrich itself, as to get a far bet- under the portraitures : as likewise the figures ter stock for the advance and enlargement of of all sorts of creatures, and the stuft skins of the work when it is once begun: neither is the as many strange animals as can be gotten. 7. continuance of particular men's liberality to be An anatomy-chamber adorned with skeletons despaired of, when it shall be encouraged by the and anatomical pictures, and prepared with all sight of that public benefit which will accrue to conveniences for dissection. 8. A chainber for all mankind, and chiefly to our nation, by this all manner of drugs, and apothecaries' materifoundation. Something likewise will arise from als. 9. A mathematical chamber, furnished with leases and other casualties; that nothing of all sorts of mathematical instruments, being an which may be diverted to the private gain of appendix to the library. 10. Lodgings for the the professors, or any other use besides that of chaplain, surgeon, library-keeper, and purveythe search of nature, and by it the general good or, near the chapel, anatomy-chamber, library, of the world ; and that care may be taken for the and hall. certain performance of all things ordained by
That the third court be on one side of these, the institution, as likewise for the protection and very large but meanly built, being designed onencouragement of the company, it is proposed : ly for use, and not for beauty too, as the others.
That some person, of eminent quality, a lover That it contain the kitchen, butteries, brew-house, of solid learning, and no stranger in it, be chosen bake-house, dairy, lardry, stables, &c. and eschancellor or president of the college, and that pecially great laboratories for chymical operaeight governors more, men qualified in the like tions and lodgings for the under servants. manner, be joined with him, two of which shall That behind the second court be placed the yearly be appointed visitors of the college,and re- garden, containing all sorts of plants that our ceive an exact account of all expenses, even to soil will bear; and at the end a little house of the smallest, and of the true estate of their pub- pleasure, a lodge for the gardener, and a grove of lic treasure, under the hands and oaths of the trees cut out into walks. professors resident.
That the second enclosed ground be a garden, That the choice of professors in any vacancy destined only to the trial of all manner of exbelong to the chancellor and the governors; periments concerning plants, as their melioration, but that the professors (who are likeliest to know acceleration, retardation, conservation, compowhat men of the na: ion are most proper for the sition, transmutation, coloration, or whatsoever duties of their society) direct their choice, by re- else can be produced by art, either for use or commending two or three persons to them at curiosity, with a lodge in it for the gardener. every election : and that, if any learned person
That the third ground be employed in conve. within his majesty's dominions discover, or emi- nient receptacles for all sorts of creatures which pently improve, any useful kind of knowledge, the professors shall judge necessary for their he may upon that ground, for his reward and more exact search into the nature of animals, the encouragement of others, be preferred, if he and the improveinent of their uses to us. pretend to the place before any body else.
That there be likewise built, in some place of That the governors have power to turn out the college where it may serve most for ornaany professor, who shall be proved to be either ment of the whole, a very high tower for obserscandalous or unprofitable to the society.
vation of celestial bodies, adorned with all sorts That the college be built after this, or some of dials, and such like curiosities ; and that such manner: That it consist of three fair qua- there be very deep vaults made under ground, drangular courts, and three large grounds, en- for experiments most proper to such places, closed with good walls behind them. That the which will be undoubtedly very many. first court be built with a fair cloister ; and the Much might be added, but truly I am afraid professors' lodgings, or rather little houses, four this is too much already for the charity or geon each side, at some distance from one another, nerosity of this age to extend to ; and we do not and with little gardens behind them, just after design this after the model of Solomon's house the inanner of the Chartreux beyond sea. That in my lord Bacon, (which is a project for expethe inside of the cloister be lined with a gravel.riments that can never be experimented), but walk, and that walk with a row of trees; and propose it within such bounds of expense as hare
often heen exceeded by the buildings of private an extraordinary), after consent of the other citizens.
That all the professors shall sup together in
the parlour within the hall every night, and shall OF THE PROFESSORS, SCHOLARS, CHAPLAIN, dine there twice a week (to wit, Sundays and AND OTHER OFFICERS,
Thursdays) at two round tables, for the conveni
ence of discourse ; which shall be for the most THAT of the twenty professors four be al part of such matters as may improve their stuways travelling beyond seas, and sixteen always dies and professions; and to keep them from falresident, unless by permission upon extraordi- ling into loose or unprofitable talk, shall be the nary occasions; and every one so absent, leaving duty of the two arburi mensarum, whu may likea deputy behind him to supply his duties. wise conunand any of the servant-scholars to read
That the four professors itinerant be assigned them what he shall think fit, whilst they are at to the four parts of the world, Europe, Asia, table; that it shall belong likewise to the said Africa, and America, there to reside three years arbitri mensarum only, to invite strangers, which at least; and to give a constant account of all they shall rarely do, unless they be men of leamthings that belong to the learning, and especially ing or great parts, and shall not invite above two natural experimental philosophy, of those parts. at a time to one table, nothing being more vain
That the expense of all dispatches, and all and unfruitful than numerous meetings of acbooks, simples, animals, stones, metals, mine- quaintance. rals, &c. and all curiosities whatsoever, natu- That the professors resident shall allow the ral or artificial, sent by them to the college, shall college twenty pounds a year for their diet, be defrayed out of the treasury, and an addition whether they continue there all the time or not
. al allowance (above the 1201.) made to them as That they shall have once a week an assembly, soon as the college's revenue shall be improved. or conference, concerning the affairs of the col
That at their going abroad, they shall take a lege, and the progress of their experimental phisolemn oath, never to write any thing to the col- losophy. lege, but what, after rery diligent examination, That, if any one find out any thing which be they shall fully believe to be true, and to confess conceives to be of consequence, he shall ammuand recant it as soon as they find themselves in nicate it to the asseinbly, to be examined, expe
rimented, approved, or rejected. That the sixteen professors resident shall be That, if any one be author of an invention that bound to study and teach all sorts of natural may bring in profit, the third part of it shall
experimental philosophy, to consist of the ma- belong to the inveutor, and the iwo other to the thenatics, mechanics, medicine, anatomy, chy- society; and besides, if the thing be very conmistry, the history of animals, plants, minerals, siderable, his statue or picture, with an elogy elements,&c.; agriculture, architecture, art mili- under it, shall be placed in the gallery, and tary, navigation, gardening ; the mysteries of made a denison of that corporation of tamous all trades, and improvement of them; the fac- men. ture of all merchandizes ; all natural magic oj That all the professors shall be always assigned divination; and briefly all things contained in the to scme particular irquisition (besides the orcatalogue of natural histories annexed to my dinary course of their studies), of which they shall lord Bacon's Organon.
give an account to the assembly : su that by this That once a day, from Faster till Michaelmas, means there may be every day some operation and twice a week, from Michaelmas to Easter, or other made in all the arts, as chymistry, anaat the hours in the afternoon most convenient for tomy, mechanics, and the like; and that the auditors from London, according to the time of college shall furnish for the charge of the opethe year, there shall be a lecture read in the hall, ration. upon such parts of natural experimental phi- That there shall be kept a register under lock losophy, as the professors shall agree on among and key, and not to be seen but by the profesthernselves, and as each of them shall be able sors, of all the experiments that succeed , signe to perform usefully and honourably.
ed by the persons who made the trial. That two of the professors, by daily, weekly, That the popular and receired errours in expeor monthly turns, shall teach the public schools, rimental philosophy (with which, like weeds in a according to the rules hereafter prescribed. neglected garden, it is now almost all over-grown)
That all the professors shall be equal in all shall be evinced by trial and taken notice of respects (except precedency, choice of lodging, in the public lectures, that they may no lonand such-like privileges, which shall belong to ger abuse the credulous, and beget new ones by seniority in the college); and that all shall be consequence or similitude, masters and treasurers by annual turns ; which
That every third year (after the full settletwo officers, for the time being, shall take place ment of the foundation) the college shall give an of all the rest, and shall be arbitri duarum account in print, in proper and ancent Jatin of mensarum.
the fruits of their triennial industry. That the master shall command all the offi.
That every professor resident shall hare his cers of the college, appoint assemblies or confer- scholar to wait upon him in his chamber and at ences upon occasion, and preside in them with table ; whom he should be obliged to breed up in a double voice; and in his absence the treasurer, natural philosophy, and render an account of his whose business is to receive and disburse all mo- progress to the assembly, from whose election be pius by the master's order in writing (if it be received him, and therefore is responsible to its
both for the care of his education and the just | schools, employing or rather casting away and civil usage of him.
six or seren years in the learning of words only, That the scholar shall understand Latin very and that too very imperfectly : Well, and be moderately initiated in the Greek, That a method be here established, for the before he be capable of being chosen into the ser- | infusing knowledge and language at the same vice; and that he shall not remain in it above time into them; and that this may be their seven years.
apprenticeship in natural philosophy. This, That his lodging shall be with the professor we conceive, may be done, by breeding them whom he serves.
up in authors, or pieces of authors, who treat That no professor shall be a maried man, or of some parts of nature, and who may be una divine, or lawyer in practice; only physic he derstood with as much case and pleasure, as may be allowed to prescribe, because the study those which are commonly tanght; such are, of that art is a great part of the duty of his place, l in Latin, Varro, Cato, Columella, Pliny, part and the duty of that is so great, that it will not of Ce'sus and of Seneca, Cicero de Divinatione, suffer him to luse inuch time in mercenary de Naturâ Deorum,and several scattered pieces, practice.
Virgil's Georgics, Grotius, Nemesianus, ManiThat the professors shall, in the collere, lius: And the truth is, because we want good poets wear the habit of ordinary masters of art in the (I mean we have but few), who have purposely universities, or of doctors, if any of them be so. treated of solid and learned, that is, natural
That they shall all keep an inviolable and ex- matters the most part indulging to the weakemplary friendship with one another; and that ness of the world, and feeding it either with the assembly shall lay a considerable pecuniary the follies of love or with the fables of gods and mulct upon any one who shall be proved to have heroes), we conceive that one book ought to entered so far into a quarrel as to give uncivilbe compiled of all the scattered little parcels language to his brother-professor ; and that the among the ancient poets that might serve for perseverance in any enmity shall be punished by the advancement of natural science, and which the governors with expulsion.
would make no small or unuseful or unpleasant That the chaplain shall cat at the master's voluine. To this we would have added the table (paying his twenty pounds a year as the morals and rhetorics of Cicero, and the inothers do); and that he shall read prayers once a stitutions of Quinctilian; and for the comedians, day at least, a little before supper-time; that he froin whom almost all that necessary part of shall preach in the chapel every Sunday morn- common discourse, and all the most intimate ing, and catechize in the afternoon the scholars proprieties of the language, are drawn, we conand the school-boys: that he shall every month ceive, the boys may be inade masters of them, administer the holy sacrament; that he shall as a part of their recreation, and not of their not trouble himself and his auditors with the task, if once a month, or at least once in two, controversies of divinity, but only teach God in they açt one of Terence's Comedies, and afterhis just commandments, and in his wonderful wards (the most advanced) some of Plautus's; works.
and this is for many reasons one of the best exercises they can be enjoined, and most innocent pleasures they can be allowed. As for the
Greek anthors, they may study Nicander, OpiTHAT the school may be built so as to contain | anus, (whom Scaliger does not doubt to prefer about two hundred boys.
above Homer himself, and place next to his That it be divided into four classes, not as adored Virgil) Aristotle's history of animals and others are ordinarily into six or seven ; because other parts, Theophrastus and Dioscorides of we suppose that the children sent hither, to be plants, and a collection made out of several of initiated in things as well as words, ought to have both poets and other Grecian writers. For the past the two or three first, and to have attained morals and rhetoric, Aristotle may suffice, or the age of about thirteen years, being already Hermogenes and Longinus be added for the latwell advanced in the Latin gramınar, and suine ter. With the history of animals they should be authors.
showed anatomy as a divertisement, and made That none, though never so rich, shall pay any to know the figures and natures of those creathing for their teaching; and that, if any pro
tures which are not common among us, disfessor shall be convicted to have taken any money
abusing them at the same time of those errours in consideration of his pains in the school, he sbali which are universally admitted concerning many. be expelled with ignominy by the governors ; but The same method should be used to make them if any persons of great estate and quality, finding acquainted with all plants; and to this must their sons much better proficients in learning be added a little of the ancient and modern here, than boys of the same age commonly are geography, the understanding of the globes, and at other schools, shall not think fit to receive the principles of geometry and astronomy. They an obligation of so near concernment without should likewise use to declaim in Latin, and returning some marks of acknowledgment, English, as the Romans did in Greek and Latin, they may, if they please, (for nothing is to and in all this travail be rather led on by familia. be demanded) bestov some little rarity or rity, encouragement, and emulation, than driven curiosity upon the society, in recompense of by severity, punishment, and terrour. Upon their trouble.
festivals and play-times, they should exercise And, because it is deplorable to consider the themselves in the fields, by riding, leaping, fencJoss which children make of their time at most ing, mustering, and training, after the manner