Optical fiber communications
The third edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems.
Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.
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They include N x N couplers (with N > 2), power splitters, power taps, and star
couplers. These components can be fabricated either from optical fibers or by
means of planar optical waveguides using material such as lithium niobate (
Figure 10-11 shows a generic 4x4 fused-fiber star coupler. In an ideal star
coupler, the optical power from any input is evenly divided among the output
ports. The total loss of the device consists of its splitting loss plus the excess loss
in each ...
For N = 10 stations, DR = 8[0.2 + 2(1.0) + 0.9 + 0.5] dB = 28.8 dB 12.1.3
Performance of Star Architectures To see how a star coupler can be applied to a
given network, let us examine the various optical power losses associated with
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Overview of Optical Fiber Communications
Structures Waveguiding and Fabrication
Signal Degradation in Optical Fibers
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