Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing

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John Wiley & Sons, Apr 8, 2005 - Science - 730 pages
A Thorough Update of the Industry Classic on Principles of Plasma Processing

The first edition of Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, published over a decade ago, was lauded for its complete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrial plasma processing, quickly becoming the primary reference for students and professionals.

The Second Edition has been carefully updated and revised to reflect recent developments in the field and to further clarify the presentation of basic principles. Along with in-depth coverage of the fundamentals of plasma physics and chemistry, the authors apply basic theory to plasma discharges, including calculations of plasma parameters and the scaling of plasma parameters with control parameters.

New and expanded topics include:
* Updated cross sections
* Diffusion and diffusion solutions
* Generalized Bohm criteria
* Expanded treatment of dc sheaths
* Langmuir probes in time-varying fields
* Electronegative discharges
* Pulsed power discharges
* Dual frequency discharges
* High-density rf sheaths and ion energy distributions
* Hysteresis and instabilities
* Helicon discharges
* Hollow cathode discharges
* Ionized physical vapor deposition
* Differential substrate charging

With new chapters on dusty plasmas and the kinetic theory of discharges, graduate students and researchers in the field of plasma processing should find this new edition more valuable than ever.

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Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
1
2 BASIC PLASMA EQUATIONS AND EQUILIBRIUM
23
3 ATOMIC COLLISIONS
43
4 PLASMA DYNAMICS
87
5 DIFFUSION AND TRANSPORT
133
6 DIRECT CURRENT DC SHEATHS
165
7 CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUILIBRIUM
207
8 MOLECULAR COLLISIONS
235
13 WAVEHEATED DISCHARGES
491
14 DIRECT CURRENT DC DISCHARGES
535
15 ETCHING
571
16 DEPOSITION AND IMPLANTATION
619
17 DUSTY PLASMAS
649
18 KINETIC THEORY OF DISCHARGES
679
APPENDIX A COLLISION DYNAMICS
723
APPENDIX B THE COLLISION INTEGRAL
727

9 CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SURFACE PROCESSES
285
10 PARTICLE AND ENERGY BALANCE IN DISCHARGES
327
11 CAPACITIVE DISCHARGES
387
12 INDUCTIVE DISCHARGES
461
APPENDIX C DIFFUSION SOLUTIONS FOR VARIABLE MOBILITY MODEL
731
REFERENCES
735
INDEX
749
Copyright

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Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 34 - It will be remembered that, from the velocity of sound in a gas, the ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume...
Page 238 - Vibrational and rotational levels of two electronic states A and B of a molecule (schematic).
Page 15 - ... the positive charge exceeds the negative charge in the system, with the excess appearing within the sheaths. This excess produces a strong time-averaged electric field within each sheath directed from the plasma to the electrode. Ions flowing out of the bulk plasma near the center of the discharge can be accelerated by the sheath fields to high energies as they flow to the substrate, leading to energetic-ion enhanced processes. Typical ion bombarding energies 6, can be as high as Vrf/2 for symmetric...
Page 66 - The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers when spin is included.
Page 14 - J is the thermionic current per square centimeter of cathode surface, V the voltage between anode and cathode, x the distance between anode and cathode, and e and m are the charge and mass of the ion respectively. This equation was deduced on the assumption that both cathode and anode are equipotential surfaces of infinite extent. The equations that hold in the case in which the cathode is a filament, and therefore not an equipotential surface, were obtained theoretically by W. Wilson, of this laboratory....
Page 17 - During that time, the instantaneous sheath potential collapses to near zero, allowing sufficient electrons to escape to balance the ion charge delivered to the electrode. Except for such brief moments, the instantaneous potential of the discharge must always be positive with respect to any large electrode and wall surface; otherwise the mobile electrons would quickly leak out. Electron confinement is ensured by the presence of positive space charge sheaths near all surfaces.
Page 14 - Figure 1.12a, consists of a vacuum chamber containing two planar electrodes separated by a spacing / and driven by an rf power source. The substrates are placed on one electrode, feedstock gases are admitted to flow through the discharge, and effluent gases are removed by the vacuum pump. Coaxial discharge geometries, such as the "hexode" shown in Figure l.l2b, are also in widespread use.
Page 237 - Z+ orl." depending upon whether the wave function is symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to reflection in any plane containing the molecular axis. Without going into the details, suffice to say that most wavefunctions give I.+ states. A."L" state can arise when two electrons with parallel spins occupy n or 8 orbitals.

About the author (2005)

MICHAEL A. LIEBERMAN, PhD, is Professor in the Graduate School in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He has published more than 170 journal articles on the topics of plasmas, plasma processing, and nonlinear dynamics. He has also coauthored, with Professor Lichtenberg, Regular and Stochastic Motion and Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, Second Edition.

ALLAN J. LICHTENBERG, PhD, is Professor in the Graduate School in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. A respected pioneer in the fields of high-temperature plasmas, plasma discharges, and nonlinear dynamics, he has published about 150 articles in these areas. In addition to the books coauthored with Professor Lieberman, he has written an earlier monograph Phase-Space Dynamics of Particles (Wiley).

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