Metal fatigue in engineering
Applied Optimal Design Mechanical and Structural Systems Edward J. Haug & Jasbir S. Arora This computer-aided design text presents and illustrates techniques for optimizing the design of a wide variety of mechanical and structural systems through the use of nonlinear programming and optimal control theory. A state space method is adopted that incorporates the system model as an integral part of the design formulations. Step-by-step numerical algorithms are given for each method of optimal design. Basic properties of the equations of mechanics are used to carry out design sensitivity analysis and optimization, with numerical efficiency and generality that is in most cases an order of magnitude faster in digital computation than applications using standard nonlinear programming methods. 1979 Optimum Design of Mechanical Elements, 2nd Ed. Ray C. Johnson The two basic optimization techniques, the method of optimal design (MOD) and automated optimal design (AOD), discussed in this valuable work can be applied to the optimal design of mechanical elements commonly found in machinery, mechanisms, mechanical assemblages, products, and structures. The many illustrative examples used to explicate these techniques include such topics as tensile bars, torsion bars, shafts in combined loading, helical and spur gears, helical springs, and hydrostatic journal bearings. The author covers curve fitting, equation simplification, material properties, and failure theories, as well as the effects of manufacturing errors on product performance and the need for a factor of safety in design work. 1980 Globally Optimal Design Douglass J. Wilde Here are new analytic optimization procedures effective where numerical methods either take too long or do not provide correct answers. This book uses mathematics sparingly, proving only results generated by examples. It defines simple design methods guaranteed to give the global, rather than any local, optimum through computations easy enough to be done on a manual calculator. The author confronts realistic situations: determining critical constraints; dealing with negative contributions; handling power function; tackling logarithmic and exponential nonlinearities; coping with standard sizes and indivisible components; and resolving conflicting objectives and logical restrictions. Special mathematical structures are exposed and used to solve design problems. 1978
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FATIGUE DESIGN METHODS
MACROMICRO ASPECTS OF FATIGUE OF METALS
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alternating stress aluminum alloy analysis annealed ASTM ASTM STP axial bending calculated Chapter components compressive self-stresses constant amplitude corrosion fatigue crack growth rates crack initiation crack length crack propagation crack tip damage decrease elastic engineering equation estimate fatigue behavior fatigue crack growth fatigue design fatigue failures fatigue limit fatigue resistance fatigue strength Fatigue Testing FIGURE fillet fracture mechanics fracture toughness fretting fatigue fully reversed Haigh diagram high temperature increase intensity factor range load histories low cycle fatigue low temperatures material maximum mean stress methods monotonic nominal stress notch factor notch root obtained peened percent plane strain plastic strain plastic zone predictions ratio region reprinted with permission residual stresses S-N curve sequence effects shaft shear stress shot-peening shown in Fig shows steel strain range strain-life stress concentration stress intensity factor stress range stress-strain curve tensile stress torsion ultimate tensile strength uniaxial unnotched values weldment yield strength