## Coherent and Nonlinear Lightwave CommunicationsThis is a practical source on recent developments in coherent and nonlinear lightwave communications. The book systematically presents up-to-date explanations of all the relevant physical principles and recent research in this emerging area. Providing an unparallelled engineering-level treatment (with 700 equations), this reference also describes the progression of coherent and nonlinear technology from yesterday's experimental field to today's practical applications tool. This work is intended as a tool for research telecommunication engineers, applications engineers working with broadband telecom systems and networks, and postgraduate students. |

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Page 68

A<D = =^(«y - ny)( = 2m$raU/A. (3.22) A Since the optical signal will have

elliptical polarization, the ellipse equation, for a sine

main coordinates x and y has the form ^ = 1 (3.23) E, cos2(A<D/2) E. sin2(A$/2)

where ...

A<D = =^(«y - ny)( = 2m$raU/A. (3.22) A Since the optical signal will have

elliptical polarization, the ellipse equation, for a sine

**voltage**, for example, in themain coordinates x and y has the form ^ = 1 (3.23) E, cos2(A<D/2) E. sin2(A$/2)

where ...

Page 71

It is important to know the value of the

phase shift. That

described for amplitude modulation. For example, the phase shift of it radians can

be ...

It is important to know the value of the

**voltage**needed to achieve the prescribedphase shift. That

**voltage**can be evaluated using a procedure similar to thatdescribed for amplitude modulation. For example, the phase shift of it radians can

be ...

Page 106

The mean square value of the amplifier output

be presented as 4*0, VK<) = ^7r{1B)R2A2 (4.10) tit Since we assumed that

current and

amplifier, ...

The mean square value of the amplifier output

**voltage**due to thermal noise canbe presented as 4*0, VK<) = ^7r{1B)R2A2 (4.10) tit Since we assumed that

current and

**voltage**sources of the noise are independent in the front-endamplifier, ...

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### Contents

Coherent Optical Receiver Sensitivity | 15 |

Optical Transmitters for Coherent Lightwave Systems | 61 |

Optical Receivers for Coherent Lightwave Systems | 101 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

amplification coefficient amplitude applied Brillouin scattering carrier frequency Chapter characteristics coherent detection coherent lightwave system coherent optical receiver components corresponding defined depends detection scheme digit interval dispersion DPSK electric field energy equal equation erbium-doped fiber amplifiers error probability evaluated expressed Figure filter frequency shift Gaussian Hence heterodyne detection homodyne detection IEEE IEEE/OSA IM/DD incoming optical signal influence input laser amplifiers length Lett lightwave systems Lightwave Techn loss modulating signal multichannel nonlinear effects nonlinear lightwave system obtained optical amplifiers optical oscillator optical power optical transmitter optical-fiber parameters phase difference phase modulation phase noise phase shift photodetector photodiode photons polarization propagation PSK signals pump signal Raman amplification Raman amplifiers random ratio realization receiver sensitivity refractive index resonator scattered signal semiconductor laser signal power single-mode optical fiber soliton pulse soliton regime spectral linewidth spectrum spontaneous emission term thermal noise transmission system variance voltage width