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Marines on the ground. This Joint concept envisions a family of capabilities of utility not just to Marines, but also to Special Operations Forces and Air Force's National Security Space Missions.

Maintained Balanced and Focused Science and Technology

Science and technology funds are those defense dollars spent on basic research, applied research, and advanced technology development. Often called the "seed com" of military technology, basic research is the systematic study of fundamental aspects of science without any specific application, such as a weapon system, in mind. Applied research translates promising basic research into solutions for broadly defined military needs by exploring ways to design, develop, or improve prototype devices, materials, or systems. Advanced technology is the last step in the process, demonstrating how a new idea can increase military capabilities—or reduce costs —when applied to different types of military equipment or techniques.

Over the next six years, we intend to increase spending for research and development by 65 percent above the 2002 baseline budget —a total investment of around $150 billion annually and a 10 percent increase as a percentage of the overall investment budget.

Experiment With New Warfare Concepts

In November 2002, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff issued his goals for developing and testing new joint warfare concepts. This January, the Commander of the Joint Forces Command in Norfolk, VA completed the first draft of his 6-year plan to accomplish those goals.

The Joint Experimentation Campaign Plan describes how research into new concepts and operational architectures will be developed and tested, and how training exercises and experiments will be used to evaluate the usefulness of new concepts in each of the following areas:

• Effects Based Operations

• Rapid Decisive Operations

• Force Projection

• Information Operations

Operational Net
Assessment
Joint Interagency
Coordination Group
Joint Fires Initiative

• Collaborative Information
Environment

• Information Sharing
(Coalition)

• Joint Tactical Actions

• Joint Urban Operations

Although the plan is highly decentralized—relying on many smaller-scale experiments conducted by all players—it tracks the expected manpower and funding to be invested each year, and lists the deliverables (exercises event, concept document).

We are exploring concepts developed both inside and outside of the Department—any new idea that could improve how we command and control joint forces across the battle space in cities or jungles, mountains or forests, in the littoral and at sea, and in space. The plan gives special emphasis to events planned during FY 2004 and 2005.

The Joint Experimentation Campaign Plan is just a first step. Our goal is to set in motion a process of continual transformation, and a culture that will keep the United States several steps ahead of any potential adversaries. As such, we will review and revise our campaign plan periodically:

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1 The Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) comprises the vice chiefs of staff of each military service, and is chaired by the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The JROC reviews all potential defense acquisition and special interest programs to avoid duplication of new programs with existing programs, and to foster the use of interoperable joint programs.

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Develop More Effective Organizations

As our culture changes, our focus shifts to enabling what we call joint operations —the ability of our land, sea, air, and space forces to be combined under the control of a single combatant commander and used in ways that are most appropriate to achieving the objectives of the campaign that he has laid out.

Accordingly, over the past two years we have modified our command structures dramatically, adding a combatant command for the United States called Northern Command and merging our Space Command with Strategic Command to make use of the new instruments of strategic power. We also have given the Special Operations Command a new lead role in shaping combat concepts and operations, adding almost 2,000 personnel to its ranks.

Strengthen Joint Operations

It is not enough to say we want to fight joint—we have to train joint, too. Accordingly, we are dedicating a substantial amount of funding to enable joint training. Much of this training will be "virtual," leveraging the most modern modeling and simulation tools. At the same time, the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force are all rethinking their own service training to make it friendly to the joint operational environment.

Establish A Standing Joint Force Headquarters

The concept of organizing forces undeT a joint task force commander has been used to great effect since the Gulf War of 1990. However, each time we respond to a crisis, we must create these joint organizations from scratch, siphoning people and equipment from other commands —and when the emergency is over, these highfunctioning units disband.

Two years ago we took steps to create permanent joint headquarters for each of our combatant commands worldwide. These headquarters would be equipped with the most capable command, control, computers, communications, intelligence, and surveillance assets we have available. The permanent staff would be trained to a common standard and be expert about how joint forces function in

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battle. Accordingly, our model concept for a Standing Joint Force Headquarters (SJFHQ) will be ready for testing by the end oi FY 2004, with the goal of fielding the model globally to regional commands during FY 2005.

Establish Test prototype during Millennium Challenge 2002 (a major joint 2002

baseline

Test prototype during Millennium Challenge 2002 (a major joint
force exercise)

Issue guidance

Develop

staffing options

Publish "Joint Force Command and Control Concept to Guide
Standing Joint Force Headquarters Development by 2005*

U.S. Forces Pacific: Terminal Fury

U.S. Forces Central Command: Internal Look

JAN 2003

Establish Update Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) FY 2003

oversight 3170.C, "Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System.'

draft charter

Complete SJFHQ Organization Study FY 2003

Conduct Pinnacle Impact 03 and related experiments to finalize Doctrine Organization Training Materiel Leadership Personnel and Facility (DOTMLPF)

Validate & Continue experiments for each regional combatant commander FY 2003

verify options

FY 2005
FY 2005

Establish A Global Joint Presence Policy

To better manage how we use air, land, sea, and space assets across service lines—and to improve coordination in the readiness and tempo of operations of all U.S. forces—we will establish steady-state levels of air, land, and naval presence in critical regions around the world. By matching our stationing and deployment policies to specific operational tasks, we will improve the capability and flexibility of U.S. forward-stationed forces and better control force management risks.

Our inaugural Global Joint Presence Policy was issued in the summer of 2003.

Enhance Homeland Defense and Consequence Management

In January 2002, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, working with the vice chiefs of the military services and the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, chartered a major study of the Department's ability to perform homeland defense missions.

Using the consolidated list of all major military tasks as a baseline, the team identified 151 operational tasks related to homeland defense missions that would contribute to homeland security, and 32 associated deficiencies considered serious enough to warrant immediate remedial action.

Drawing on the results of this effort, the Joint Staff and the
Commander, U.S. Northern Command, in cooperation with other
federal agencies including the Department of Homeland Security,
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Transportations
Security Administration, are refining an operational concept and
architecture for identifying and evaluating homeland defense
missions.

Define And Develop Transformational
Capabilities

The dramatic transformation of America's strategic environment
demands an equally dramatic transformation in how we prepare the
force. Our emphasis must shift from deliberate planning to time-
sensitive planning, from permanent organizations to dynamic
organizations, and from hierarchical institutions to modular force
packages. Accordingly, how we train must transform.

Today's trainers must prepare the force to learn, improvise, and adapt rather than to merely execute fixed doctrine to standards. We must define and then develop dynamic capabilities-based training across the full spectrum of service, joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational operations.

The long-term goals of training transformation are to:

• Improve readiness and align military capabilities with the needs of the combatant commanders.

• Develop individuals and organizations that think intuitively as joint entities.

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