English Composition and Rhetoric: A Manual

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D. Appleton, 1884 - English language - 343 pages
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Contents

SIMILE OR COMPARISON 16 Simile defined and exemplified
29
Metaphor defined and exemplified
30
Personifying Metaphors
31
Metaphors express the more hidden operations of the mind
32
Highest degree of Personification
34
Inferior degree
36
Allegory defined and exemplified
37
The Fable
38
REMAINING FIGURES OF SIMILARITY 31 Certain kinds of Synecdoche
39
Exercise on Figures of Similarity
40
FIGURES OF CONTIGUITY 32 Resolvable principally into Metonymy and Synecdoche
41
Metonymies classified
42
Forms of Synecdoche
43
The Transferred Epithet
45
The Antithesis proper
46
Secondary forms of Antithesis
47
Proper employment of Antithesis
49
Defined as in most instances Apparent Contradiction 51
51
Epigram of the Identical Assertion 42 The Seeming Irrelevance
53
The arrestive conjunctions are epigrammatic
54
Origin of the tendency to Exaggeration 55
55
Limits of Hyperbole
57
EXCLAMATION
60
Figures of Speech
66
ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS
73
SIMPLICITY
79
The Abstract Noun
81
A series of Abstract Terms difficult
82
Simplicity of Structure
83
Opposed to Obscurity and Vagueness
84
Management of ambiguous words
85
Parallelism in drawing comparisons
86
Essential pleasure of Power a rebound from Weakness
88
Anger or Indignation allied to the Sublime
89
Contemplation of Power in Nature
90
Originality 92
93
Variety or Alternation of Effects
94
Variety in the length and structure of Sentences
95
Exciting effects should be relieved
96
Strength from Objectivity
97
Resources for causing strength
98
Tender Feeling allied to inactivity or repose
99
Vocabulary of Tenderness
101
Natural objects sometimes suggest Tenderness
102
The Ludicrous defined
104
Derision
106
Wit defined
108
Wit combined with the Ludicrous
109
Involves the voice and the ear
110
The genial extreme is Humor
111
Alternation of vowel and consonant in successive words
112
Varying the letters
113
The closing syllables of a sentence
114
Variety of sound in composition generally
115
HARMONY OF SOUND AND SENSE 126 An example of the general Law of Harmony
116
Imitation of Movements
117
Bulk expressed by slowness of rhythm
119
Meanings of Taste
120
THE SENTENCE AND THE PARAGRAPII THE SENTENCE 132 Grammatical laws of the Sentence
122
The Participial construction in the Period
124
135 The periodic form favorable to Unity
125
Balance aids the Memory
126
Extreme form of the Balance
127
Balance with Obverse Iteration
128
Keeping up the same leading term
129
The Condensed Sentence used for Comic effect
130
1 In the be ginning
131
2 After an adverbial phrase or clause
132
3 At the end
133
Unity of the Sentence
135
Clauses united in a Sentence without breach of unity
136
THE PARAGRAPI 158 Paragraph defined
142
Adversative Conjunctions
143
Phrases of reference
144
166170 Cases in which connecting words are unnecessary
145
Demonstrative Phrases of reference
146
Repetition in substance of what has been said
147
De Quincey remarkable for explicit reference
148
Third Requisite The opening sentence to indicate the subject of the Paragraph
150
Fourth Requisite Freedom from dislocation
151
Sixth Requisite A due proportion between Principal and Sub
152
PART II
153
First To combine with the Enumeration of the parts a Plan of the whole
154
Any feature may be chosen suggesting a comprehensive aspect Examples of the general rule
155
Second The Description may be panoramic
156
Third Description aided by Individuality
157
Fourth Description by Associated Circumstances
158
Associated human Feelings in Description
159
Description of Mind First the proper vocabulary of Mind
160
Second Feelings may be suggested by their Associations
162
Description involved in all other kinds of Composition
163
Art of Abridgment
173
Fourth The Explanatory Narrative
174
Interest or the gratification of the Feelings
176
Sixth History based on Geography
178
A nations existence analyzed into departments
179
History involves the arts of Exposition and of Poetry
183
Much of what has been said on History applies to Biography
184
CHAPTER III
185
Constituents of Science
186
Whenever truth is expressed generally we have Science
187
Individual facts by themselves not peculiar to science
188
Defining by Antithesis or Contrast
189
The two methods combined
190
The scholastic definition a form of Analysis
192
The Proposition or Principle
193
There should always be one chief statement
194
Advantages of the Obrerse Statement
195
The principal medium of Exposition is Examples
196
60 Choice of Examples
197
Principles embodied in Examples
198
Delineation of Character and Criticism
199
The imparting of extended human interest to Science Plato
201
The choice of Examples and Illustrations with this view
202
The conditions of the employment of Illustrations for expository ends
203
Calling attention to Difficulties
205
Inferences and Applications serve to elucidate principles
207
The Expository Paragraph
208
Various forms of the Paragraph
210
Management of novel terms
211
CHAPTER IV
212
Oratory of the Law Courts
213
Pulpit Oratory Cultivation of the Religious Feelings
215
An orator has to overbear mens special views by means of larger principles of action
219
the Censorship of the press in England
220
MEANS OF PERSUASION
223
A thorough knowledge of the subject a chief requisite Re
224
Different aspects of Persuasion
225
Persuasion as based on Description Narration or Exposition
226
Persuasion aided by all the arts that impress ideas
228
An Argument defined
229
Deductive Arguments 97 Inductive Arguments 231
231
Arguments from Analogy 99 Probable Arguments
234
Devices for stifling Arguments
236
Number and Order of Arguments
237
Separating the arguments on the other side
238
Kind of Refutation called Argumentum ad hominem
240
Exposure of defective Arguments from Analogy
241
Debate often turns on opposing Probabilities
242
Tactics of Debate
243
Oratory of the FEELINGS Classes of human motives
244
First our own Pleasures and Pains considered as remote
245
Secondly Sympathy with the Pleasures and Pains of others
248
Fear Love Vanity and Pride Anger Ridicule Fine Art Emotion the Moral Senti ment
249
Poetry
251
Management of the Feelings generally
255
The Demeanor of the Speaker
256
CHAPTER V
257
Subjects and Form peculiar to Poetry Pure and mixed kinds
259
External Nature furnishes materials for Poetry
260
Our interest in Humanity enters into Poetry
262
Concreteness and Combination are characteristic of Poetry
263
Plot Interest
270
Painful effects should be redeemed Tragedy
271
Metreits uses
272
SPECIES OF POETRY 130 Species classified
274
1 The Song
275
2 The Ode
276
3 The Elegy
277
2 The Romance
279
5 The Metrical Ilistory
280
8 The Prose Fiction
281
Nature of the dramatic interest
282
2 Comedy Its various forms
283
Didactic Poetry Satiric Poetry
284
The metrical features of English poetry
285
Examples of the different Measures
286
Rhymed Verse
292
Dr Campbells allegorical comparison of Probability
299
Robert Halls Reflections on War The Sentence Pathos
308
Examples of Description from Sir Walter Scott
316
Hobbes on Laughter Sentence Paragraph Exposition
324
Drydens criticisms on Ben Jonson and Shakespeare Sen
327
Expository Extract from Mr Samuel Bailey Application of
330
Expository and moralizing passage from Macaulay
333
Confused chain of reasoning from Campbells Rhetoric
335
Passage from Adam Smith Exposition applied to Moral
336
Oratorical passage from Demosthenes on the Crown
338
Coleridges Mont Blanc Poetic rendering of Nature
341
Byrons Thunder Storm The Impressiveness of Action 342
342
Dyers Grongar Hill Poetical Description XXII Thomsons Seasons The Golden Age exemplifying the Ideal
343

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