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ticks are able to withstand long periods of starvation and are very resistant to aridity. The two species discussed in the following pages have been widely spread along man's trade routes.

Subgenera of Ornithodoros are scarcely better established than those of Ar as. 0. moubata and O. savi n i are closely re. lated species wiéh only one other kindred End, 0. eremicus Cooley and Kohls, 191.1, of Utah, western North America.- me wor ers would include only these three species in the genus Ornithodoros and all others in several different genera. This position seems an unnatural approach and a useless complexity. For present pur. poses, 0. moubata and 0. savignyi are treated as in the subgenus

Ornithodoros, the only-one presently known to be represented in the Sifian.

In addition to these two tampans, it is certain that several other species of Ornithodoros occur in the Sudan and await dis. covery. Among these should 5e 0. fole i, 0. delano'ei subsp., and possibly some member of*the 0. tho ozani g¥oup:_m1-eT1 more inten. sive search is undertaken in_the 55!... it will probably be found that 0. erraticus is localized but widely distributed here. 0. erraticus is Eoadly characterized by small size (maxirmzm length '7.5 mm., usual length 3.0 to 5.0 mm.), oval shape, closely crowded, hemispherical granulations interspersed by large discs,and absence of tarsal armature and of cheeks surrounding the mouthparts. Specimens will probably be found in small mammal burrows.

The following are the other known Ornithodoros species that occur in Africa, with selected references concerning them:

Q. arenicolous Hoogstraal, 1953(0); description of all stages; biology; from rodent, hedgehog, and Varanus lizard burrows

in Egyptian deserts. Absence of spirochetes (Davis a.nd
Hoogstraal 1951.).

Q. ca%nsis Neumann, 1901; described from penguin.inhabited islands 0 ape Province. Found on Cargados Carajos Island in Indian

008811 (Neumann l90'7E). Challenger Expedition specimens from st. Paul's Rocks (Nuttall et al 1908). Present on islands off Southwest Africa (Tromsdorff T914). Biology of hosts and description of habitat, St. Croix Island off Cape Province (Hewitt 1990). Other South African records (Bedford 1934).

Records from western Australia (Taylor and Murray 191.6). Present on marine birds, Guam (Kohls 1953). Specimen from leg of soldier on island in Lake Nyasa (Hoogstraal 19540).

2. conice (Canestrini, 1890); described from Venice, Italy. §pec1mens, from near Aral Sea, in St. Petersburg Museum §Biru1a 1895); these quoted by Yakinnv and Koh‘L.Yakimov

1911) and Yakinnv (191'7,1922). Present in France (Guitel 1918, Theodor 1932, Ronnn and Nalin 191.8). As Q. talaje from Fezzan, Morocco; introduced with pigeons; severe se. quelae in human victims (Martial and Senevet 1921). From bats and pigeons, life cycle, Tunis (Colas.Be1cour 19293). Description of all stages, Palestine (Theodor 1932). Bi. ology, Palestine (Bodenheimer 1931.). Present in Spain (011 Collado 191.7,l91.8A,B). Present in Morocco (Blanc and Maurice 1950). Present in Nablus area of Jordan; parasite of chickens and persons; infected with spirochetes (Badu.

dieri 1954,1955). Transmits fowl spirochetes ("'Brumpt's
Precis"'). Life cycle (Davis and Mavros 19560).

O. delano'3i delanogi Roubaud a.nd Colas.Be1cour, 1931; described

_ from porcupine burrow, Morocco. Biology (Roubaud and Colas. Belcour 1936). Life cycle and larval feeding (Co1as..Be1cour 191.1 ). Non.transmission of spirochetes (Co1as.Be1cour and Vervent 191.9). Present in Egypt (fioogstraal 1953C). Ab. sence of spirochetes (Davis and I-Ioogstraal 1951+). Life cycle (Davis and Mavros 1956A). Biological observations and dis. tribution in Egypt; descriptions of immature stages (Hoog. straal l955E).

0. de1ano'<'§i acinus Whittick, 1938; described from cave in British

' -5-Tone ILIT . Haennglobin (Nigglesworth 1943). Biology (Robinson 191.6). Coxal organs ("'g1ands"‘) (Lees 191.68). Trans. piration from cuticle (Lees 191.8). Egg waxing organ (Lees and Beament 191,8). Height of tick and of its cuticle, fed and unfed (Lees 1952). larval and nymphal measurements, and the increase in size following each molt and male meas. urements have been noted by Campana.Rouget (1954).

2. erraticus Lucas, 1849; described from Algeria and now known in Iran, Turkey, and throughout much of the European and African Mediterranean area as well as in French West Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. This tick chiefly inhabits rodent burrows, sometimes lairs and dens of other animals, and pigsties. It also may parasitize man, reptiles, toads, and birds. The very extensive literature on Q. erraticus will be reviewed in Volume II of this work.

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Q. fole Parrot, 1928; single female described from the Algerian Sigma. Description repeated by Foley (1929). A synonym of 0. fole is 0. franchinii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1930(3) from Iibya; c . Ro3m~aa%lcow (1931). As Q. lahorensis, 0. lahorensis group, or O. franchinii from Libya by Franchini 11917192351, , 932A,B,1933I,n“I%Z1"I<B, , 51,1937) and Franchini and Taddia (1930); in these reports, the general remarks and those concerning fever in man as a result of bites do not appear to be based on sound evidence; the "biological differ. ences"' (1931.11) are pointless. Morphology and generic discussion (Warburton 1933); cf. remarks herein under Ar as brum i (page 88). Presence in Southeastern Egypt oogstraal ahd %ser 1956). Life cycle (Davis and Mavros l956D).

Q. ain eri Heisch and Guggisberg, l953(A); all stages described from coral cave near sea, Mombasa. Life history (Heisch and Harvey 1953). Infected with spirochetes (Heisch 1953). Parasitizing bats (Garnham and Heisch 1953). Parasitizing porcupines and man (Heisch 1954A). Note: The actual date of publication of this species is 8 January 1953 although the volume number is that of 1952.

Q. normandi Larrousse, 1923; all stages described, life cycle, from

rodent burrows in Tunisia. Morphologic characters and biology (Colas.Belcour 1928). Egg laying and hatching (Colas.Belcour 1929A). Spirochete studies by Nicolle, Anderson, and Co1asBelcour (l927A,B,l928A,B,C ,D ,l930).

Z-Q. vimentosus Neurmann, 1901; reported from Southwest Africa. ynonymize under 9. savigi by Theiler a.nd Hoogstraal

(1955)._7

2. E~ Bedford and Hewitt, 1925; scanty descriptions and 11 ustrations of male, female, and nymph from South Africa. Cliff swallow as host (Bedford l929A,l932A). Failure to

transmit Ae tianella lorum (Bedford and Coles 1933).
All stages regescribed E reillustrated (Bedford 1934).

O. salahi Hoogstraal, l953(B); a parasite of fruit bats in the

- N1'Ie Valley and Wadi Natroun (Western Desert) of Egypt; also known from Palestine; all stages described; life history. Absence of spirochetes (Davis and Hoogstraal 1954).

Q. tholozani tholozani Laboulbene and Megnin, l882(A); first described from Iran. An important Asiatic vector of spirochetes of relapsing fever; the tholozani group consists of several subspecies and related species; reviewed by Desportes and Campana (1946). Rare in western Egypt and eastern Libya (Coghill, Lawrence, and Ballentine 1947; Hoogstraal 19536) but accused of transmitting spirochetes causing disease in troops. Now known from several restricted, but large, spirochete-infected populations in Egypt (Davis and Hoogstraal 1956) a.nd from Jordan (Babudieri 1954,1955).

9. zum ti Heisch eha Guggisberg, 1953(B); female and nymph descr1' Bed from burrow of rodent (Rhabdo s ‘lio) in Cape Province, South Africa. Onders epoort coIIect1' on material recently sent by Dr. Theiler for identification includes males, females, and nymphs from the nests of Aethor_uys and ?Tatera in Cape Province.

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[-0. lahorensis Neumann, 1908, an Asiatic-Near Eastern species, """65FF'eeia ranchini (l929B,l932B,l935) and Garibaldi (1935) to occur in Libya; most probably does not extend its range into North Africa._7

0. sp. nov.; an undescribed species closely related to

_ fole i has recently been found in porcupine burrows near Pretoria in the Union of South Africa (Theiler, correspondence).

KEY TO SUDAN SPECIES OF (BNI'1‘H(DGi0S

MAIES AND FEMALES

‘With two pairs of eyes in lateral fold.
(Northern 8.111 Central SUd8.n).........................0.

Figu;es 8 to I2

eyes; (SQuth€rn Sud8.n).......................Q. Figures 39 to 62

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