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LXIX

LXOX LXXI LXXII LXXIII LXXIV

LOV LXXVI LXXVII LXXVIII LXXIX

LXXX LXXI LXXII LXXXIII LOXIV

LXXXV LXXXVI

XOCXVII LOCXVIII

240_244 245248 249_252 253_256 257-260 261-264 265_268 269_272 273_276 277_280 281-284 285_288 289_292 293_296 297-300 301_304 305308 309_312 313_316 317-320

R. appendiculatus.
R. arnoldi...
R. bequaerti.
R. compositus
R. cuspidatus.
R. distinctus.
R. evertsi evertsi
R. kochi..
R. longicoxatus.
R. Iongus.
R. muhlensi.
R. pravus
R. sanguineus sanguineus
R. sanguineus sanguineus.
R. Simpsoni..
R. simus simus
R. simus senegalensis
R. sulcatus....
R. supertritus.
R. tricuspis.

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654 .660 664 669 673 ..684 ..685

725 ..729

753 760 .767 771

PLATE FIGURES

SUBJECT

PAGE

LXXXIX

321 Equatoria Province Collecting Localities.
East Bank.....

780 XC

322 Equatoria Province Collecting Localities.
West Bank..

.781
MIC
323 Mean Annual Temperature.

..830 XIIC 324 Mean Annual Rainfall......

..832 XIIIC 325 Mean Annual Rainfall Distribution.

.833 XIVC 326 Floral Districts....

..836 XVC 327 Faunal Areas (Tabanidae)...

.841 VIC 328 Tick Distribution..

..856 XVIIC 329332 *Hy alomma sp., o and o..

..880 XVIIIC 333-336 *Hyalomma sp., O and o.....

.884 XIXC 337-338 *Hyalomma schulzei, .....

..889 C 339-341 Ixodes alluaudi CI 342358 Margaropus reidi sp. nov., 0, 4, and nymph; details..

..896 CII 359_362 Margaropus winthemi, cand

cand q....

..897 CIII 363_372 Margaropus winthemi, o and

and , details......898

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891

NOTE

Throughout this report, "the Sudan" refers to the Condominium,
dissolved on 1 January 1956, known since 1898 as the Anglo Egyptian
Sudan. It should not be confused with the "French Soud an" of
French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa.

ABBREVIATIONS

BIÁNH or BM (VH): British Museum (Natural History) collections.
CNHM: Chicago Natural History Museum collections.
HH: Hary Hoogstraal.
I.CZ: vuseum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard University collections).
NAMRU3: United States Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three (Cairo).
SGC: Sudan Government collections (Wad Medani).
SVS: Sudan Veterinary Service material (Hoogstraal collection).
L: Larvae.
N: Nymphs.
det.: Identification determined by.
legit = collected by.
ms.: unpublished manuscript.

FOREWORD

Mosquitoes have generally been credited as the worst pests of man and animals, but ticks, in spite of their lack of wings, could truly be considered to run them a close second both as pests and as vectors of an even wider variety of diseases of man and animals. Because of the varied habits of different species of ticks, of first importance to an understanding of the problems they create is an acco curate knowledge of their taxonomy and biology.

Among the continents, Africa in particular is burdened with more than its share of species. This first in a series of volumes, with emphasis on the Sudanese tick fauna, will provide the basic systematic and biological information that can safely be said to bear in a major way on the entire continent. Many of these species occur far beyond the region under discussion.

It will be evident to the specialized reader that the author not only has a scholarly command of the pertinent literature based on exhaustive library work and liaison with competent authorities, but an unusual field experience of personal collecting in Africa and elsewhere in the world. More than this, he has been able to straighten out a number of knotty problems, particularly in the genera Argas, Ornithodoros, Haema physalis, and Hyalomma, which con tain important disease carrying species, through study of his own and of various museums' extensive collections. This expansion of our knowledge of African ticks will be a major contribution, and provide authoritative reference work for years to come. For exam... ple, here for the first time is brought together the extensive literature on Ornithodoros moubata, the relapsing fever tick, notorious since Livingstone's vividly described, evil encounters with it in the Congo.

Most of the important species of African ticks are found in the Sudan. The few that' are not, plus such aspects as relationships to disease, will be treated in companion volumes to follow so that the future student of any phase of the entire continental tick fauna will undubitably resort to these elegant contributions as his major reference,

The United States Navy is to be congratulated for its fore sightness in supporting this timely and continuing work through its Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three in Cairo, Egypt.

CORNELIUS B. PHILIP

I

INTRODUCTION

OBJECT AND SCOPE OF THIS AND RELATED PROJECTS

The primary objective of Volume I of this series of studies is to present our research on Sudanese ticks, including a critical survey of published worldwide information concerning each species. This has been attempted with reference to: (a) distribution in the Sudan and elsewhere, (b) hosts, (c) biology, and (a) identifica tion. The secondary objective is to provide a suitable background for subsequent volumes presently in preparation. These studies will include all economically important tick species of Africa and all diseases and injuries associated with them.

The present report is intended to serve the tyro and specialist alike, and should provide a sound source of information for those who compile textbooks and review. literature. Special attention is invited to the introductory paragraphs in section IV, pages 43 to 47, in which presentation methods and handling of data are elucidated, and to the fact that mention of disease relations herein are merely cross-referencing for subsequent volumes.

It should be stressed that most tick species of known or poten tial medical or veterinary importance of the Ethiopian Faunal Region (see Figure 1) are found in the Sudan and are treated in the present report. Those few species that do not occur in the Sudan will be treated in a forthcoming volume, entitled 'The Economically Important Ticks of Africa. Therefore, pertinent facts concerning all known species of medical and veterinary importance of continental Africa will be included in these two reports. Also included in the forth coming volume will be maps of the distribution of each species in the Sudan, as well as in other African regions and elsewhere in the world. Subsequent volumes will be entitled: "Human Tick-Borne Diseases and Injuries in the Ethiopian Faunal Regions and "The Biological Relationships of African Ticks and Veterinary Diseases.' Since a year or more will probably elapse between the publication of each volume, additional material concerning species previously treated will be presented in each new section in an effort to bring the pertinent information up-todate.

IN

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