« PreviousContinue »
Reptiles 7 Farajok Kini s‘€. belliana Mar 1 3 Torit nixys . 5eIIiana Aug 3 Meridi, 50 mi. ' ' "' northeast of Kini s B. belliana Oct (SVS) l Torit Varanus_n. n1 0 icus Dec 1 Torit Varanus E. exant ematicus Jan _;M'J“m_s1 1 Torit Ouebia ourebi aequatoria Feb Bird
1 Torit Francolinus clappgrtoni
These specimens indicate the presence of A. nuttalli on both the east and west banks of the Nile in Equatoria Frovinc .
Sudan Government collections contain specimens only from Ossa River (H. H. King legit, 1913), now a part of Uganda. King (1926) mentioned no Sudan ocality records for this species.
DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN
Kordofan: As A. werneri (Schulze 1932A), a single specimen
from T§Iod1. The hzst is most probably the “Ciniiys belliana" mentioned by Werner (1924).
D ISTRIBUTI ON
A. nuttalli is widely spread throughout the African continent within the Etfiopian Faunal Region.
wrzsr AFRICA: NICERIA (Simpson 19121,s. Robinson 1926). com coAsr_(T"'—‘ohineon 1926. Stewart 1937). mmrcn wssr AFRICA (Villiers 1955). HBTUGESE ovum (Tendeiro 1951c,n,1952A,c.,1>,1953,1954).
cmrmm. AFRICA: cmmoons (p‘3ni1-.e 1909. Rageau 1951,1953A,B). Bm.G~etz l%7C. Bequaert 1931. Theiler and Robinson 1954 .
EASI‘ AFRICA: SUDAN (King 1926. As 5. 3. wei-hei~i= Schulze l932A_'H__t._. oogs raal 1951.12). ‘__'
ITALIAN S(MALll.AND (See REMARKS below).
KENYA (Loveridge 1929. Bequaert 19300.). UGANDA (King 1926, see DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN above. Robinson 1926. Mettam 1932. Wilson 19503). TANGANYIKA (Dbnitz 1909. Robinson 1926. Love. ridge l923C as A. marmoreum is actually _l_&. nuttalli, see Bequaert
SOUTHERN AFRICA: SOUTHERN RHODESIA (D'6nitz 1909. Jack 1942). ~ias 191.9B,19s0A,B,19s1A,19521>,19s3B,19s5A,B). UNION or SOUTH AFRICA (Curson 1928. Alexander 1%9,1931. Bedford 1932. Neitz 191.8).
All authors list land tortoises (Kini s spp. or Geochelone dalis) as the chief hosts of adult . nu alli. A record of t e si e.neck turtle, Pelomedusa s. subrufa I: P. galeata), as a
host (Santos Dias l953B) was Based on mi sidentification of Pelusios s. sinuatus, "'a species of lesser importance as a host'" (Santos
Infrequent hosts of adults are monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) (Robinson 1926, Tendeiro l95lD, and Sudan record above , ama lizard (Loveridge 1929, Bequaert 19300.), python (Bedford ), hedgehog (Robinson 1926), man (Schwetz 1927C), and one specimen from a domestic goat (TheiI§r, unpublished).
Immnature stages infest tortoises and also Varanus lizards, birds, an hares. Guineapigs may be used for labdratory rearing. Owing to the paucity of field records for immature stages it is impossible to determine their host preference in nature. It is unusual to find a tick that normally feeds on warm blooded animals in the immature stages and on cold blooded animals in the adult stages; the reverse is usually true. Yet Theiler (correspondence) has nymphs from South African hares and from a turkey on a farm where the mountain tortoise is also common. Further field study of this matter is indicated but, as A. nuttalli appears to be curiously localized and seldom abundEnt:_thE-Sficcess of such investigation will depend on local factors. Note that in Equatoria Province, single nymphs were found on each of two species of Varanus lizards, on an oribi (antelope), and on a francolin partridge, but none were taken from the many tortoises examined.
Various literature records for “iguana” lizard, a non.African reptile, should be “leguad" or monitor lizard (Varanus spp.).
Alexander (1931) was unable to induce adults to feed on laboratory animals.
See also BIOLOGY below.
Santos Dias (1950A) reared this species using guineapigs and tortoises as hosts. He subsequently reported (1955B) that the life cycle is a three.host type. A maximum of 22,891 eggs from a single female were noted with the claim that this is the great. est number of eggs yet observed in any of the Ixodoidea. The minimum period for completion of the life cycle is estimated at 134 to 151 days, the maximum period 217 to 296 days. This paper
is illustrated with photographs of both sexes feeding from the interstices of the host's shields. Our Torit adults, however,
‘were taken in the host's axillae (during a native big-game hunt
and stored in a hunter's ear, plugged with mud, for three hours until our lost vials could be recovered). DISEASE RELATIONS
Experimental attempts to transmit heartwater (Rickettsia ruminantium) of cattle by this tick species have failed.
It is claimed that specimens have been foud infected with Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) in Portugese Guinea.
As with the A nomma parasites of lizards and snakes, it is of interest to congecture that the small reptile.amblyomma may be a vector of the hemogregarines of tortoises.
Missha n specimens have been reported (Santos Dias 1949B, l95QA,l955A .
Ambl omma werneri werneri Schulze, l932(A), described from Kini s 5. Belliana (see Werner 1924) from Talodi, Kordofan, Sudan, appears to be a synonym of A. nuttalli. Following Schulze's practice of applying species names to any variant, he distin. guished a single specimen as different from A. nuttalli for the following reasons: the dark marking not blaEkish.Erown, but light red brown on a light reddish brown background; darker markings bounded with a coppery color (in A. nuttalli dark yellow brown without copper borders); median stripes more irregular than in A. nuttalli and broadened at the ends; lateral groove sharply defined against the scutum, in_A. nuttalli irregular; and ventral mdian muscleplate smaller.
All characters proposed to separate A. werneri from A. nuttalli fall well within the normal range of variation due to age, nutrition,
or methods of preservation. In long series of any Amblyomma species,
some specimens vary in roundness, flatness, development of the ventral muscleplate, and sharpness of the lateral groove. Conn parison of many specimens of this genus preserved in alcohol with those preserved as dry specimens shows that those preserved in alcohol frequently develop a coppery sheen due to chemical change. Theiler has made similar observations in this respect. The obscu. rity of the color pattern and its overlay with a basic color in some specimens in any extensive collection of amblyommas from even a single host is taken for granted by most students. Using the above mentioned criteria, proposed by Schulze, large collec. tions of A. varie atum and A. le idum from single herds of cattle have bead-examined. It has_been found that each collection con. tains no less than four “species” and up to seven “species”.
Comparison of Sudan specimens with others from various parts of Africa and of the t e specimens of A. nuttalli in British Museum (Natural History reveals no sigdificant differences to obtain between any of them.
It is for these reasons that it has been proposed (Hoogstraal 1954B) to consider A. werneri werneri Schulze, 1932(A), as a sync.
nym of A. nuttalli Idnitz, 1909.
It is also of some interest to consider the status of A. werneri pgematium Schulze, 1932, described on the basis of two ddles from a young rhinoceros, at the Amsterdam zoological gardens, from East Africa. This subspecies was distinguished by ma wonderful metallic, copper, partly greenish gloss (with) brown elements of the conscutum bordered in copper“, in one of the two specimens, but in the other “the structure producing the metallic coloration was in greatest part destroyed, only in a few places did the greenish coppery sheen show up“. The size of these specimens was also larger than that of the subspecies werneri.
I have seen a male specimen taken from a Somali tortoise (#17691, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, determined as A. werneri by Dr. E. Stella). This tick answers the descriptioh of A. E. poematium but has a somewhat rugose scutum suggestive of injury uring melting or during an immature stage. The specimen resembles a teneral individual, i.e. one that has been preserved shortly after melting while still bloated and before the colors are fast.