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the males, four are slightly more punctate than is usual for A. variegatum, one is slightly more punctate than the first four, and the last two are so heavily punctate that, alone, there would be little question of their identity as A. pompo sum.
Such specimens, in addition to various queries already mentioned, suggest the possibility that A. pompo sum is a heavily punctate, mountain or heavy forest subspecies of A. variegatum and that intergradation does occur.
It appears that A. variegatum govurensis of Santos Dias (1950B, 1954H) is an intermediate form between the almost nonpunctate A. variegatum and the heavily punctate A. pomposum. Santos Dias! description adds weight to the concept that A. pomposum is actually no more than a variant form or subspecies of A. variegatum. Rearing of progeny from isolated females in lowlands and in highlands and transporting some of their progeny to different altitudinal levels for development under different ecological conditions may solve this question.
Since the above was written, Santos Dias! (1953E) paper des cribing A. superbum sp. nov. has appeared. In it, A. variegatum govurensis is placed in synonymy under A. pomposum. A. superbum is considered to differ from both A. variegatum and A. pomposum chiefly on the basis of size, depth, and distribution of puncte tions. Even more recently, the same author (1954H) has reaffirmed the validity of his variety of A. variegatum, with no indication of what he proposes to do about A. super bum.
On ecological grounds, A. superbum (or A. variegatum govurensis) might be a useful niche in which to drop the sudan specimen and certain other Central African lowland specimens. Variable and confusing series of specimens still confront us. Unfortunately, however, A. superbum does not answer the problems this material poses. No recourse offers itself but to maintain the present systematic status of A. variegatum and A. pomposum, undertake biological studies suggested in the paragraph above, and only then judge the presently considered questionable validity of A. superbum as a real species and the range of variation in A. variegatum and A. pomposum.
Santos Dias (1953E) further refers the Belgian Congo records of A. pompo sum by Nuttall and Warburton (1916), Schwetz (1927A), Bequaert (1931) and Schoenaers (1951A) to A. superbum. Since no adequate descriptions for differentiating Congo specimens were provided by these authors, the validity of this proposed synonymy is highly questionable. Belgian Congo specimens that have been seen in British Museum (Natural History) collections, in Museum of Comparative Zoology collections, and in the HH collection are typically A. pompo sum by comparison with specimens from everywhere within the range of this species.
In conclusion, one may only belabor the point: the status of heavily punctate specimens morphologically intermediate between A, variegatum and A. pompo sum remains to be ascertained by bio. Iogical studies, not by museum_type studies.
AMBLYOMMA RHINOCEROTIS (de Geer, 1778) (= A. PETERSI Karsch, 1878)
(Figures 84 to 87)
The Sudan Government collection specimens were collected by H. H. King. British Museum (Natural History) specimens were taken by Captain C. M. Stigand.
A. rhinocerotis occurs in central, eastern, and southeastern Africa apparently wherever the rhinoceros is found.
[ WEST AFRICA: LIBERIA: Bequaert (1930A) states that Neumann's (1901,1911) Liberian records of this species, repeated by Bedford and Hewitt (1925) and by Bedford (1932B) are in error. FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA: Neumann (1899) listed A. aureum (a synonym of A. rhinocerotis) from *Ngourou Plains, Zanzībar". It is probable that this local. ity is actually N'Gourou, Ubangi-Shari, French Equatorial Africa.7
CENTRAL AFRICA: BELGIAN CONGO (Schwetz 1927A. River Misisi, Schwetz 19270, p. 92, is in Uganda.
p. 92, is in Uganda. Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. Bequaert 1931).
NOTE: According to Theiler (correspondence), the record for Ruanda-Urundi by Santos Dias (1954D) is in error.
EAST AFRICA: SUDAN
SUDAN (King 1926. Hoogstraal 1954B,C).
BRITISH SOMALILAND (Neumann 1922. Stella 1938A,1939A,1940). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. Stella 1940).
KENYA (Neave 1912. Neumann 1913,1922. Anderson 19244,B. Robinson 1926. Bedford 1932B. Lewis 19310 ,1934. Weber 1948). UGANDA (Neave 1912. Neumann 1922. Robinson 1926. Schwetz 19270, p. 92, as Belgian Congo. Bequaert 1930A, p. 803. Mettam 1932, 1933. Wilson 1950C). TANGANYIKA (Neuma
umann 1901,1907C,1910B,1911. Neave 1912. Morstatt 1913. Robinson 1926. J. B. Walker; un published).
SOUTHERN AFRICA: NORTHERN RHODESIA (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926). SOUTHERN RHODESIA (Jack 1942). NYASALAND (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926. Wilson 1950B).
Wilson 1950B). MOZAMBIQUE (Karsch 1878. Neumann 1911. Santos Dias 1947A,1953B). UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Breijer 1915. Bedford and Hewitt 1925. Curson 1928. Bedford 1932B, 1936).
COUTLYING ISLANDS: MADAGASCAR: Neumann (1901,1911). Poisson (1927). Locality record probably erroneous, cf. Hoogstraal (1953E). ZANZIBAR: Neumann (1899) probably in error, see WEST AFRICA above. 7
[Note: Neumann (1899) listed JAVA for the synonymous A. aureum but subsequently (1908) he stated that the specimen on which this record was based was actually A. testudinarium. ]
All workers list as hosts either the black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, or the white or square-lipped rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, the latter in both the northern and southern areas of its range. Other animals that uncommonly serve as hosts are: eland (Neumann 19070 ,1910B,1911), tortoise (Bedford 1936), and python (Mettam 1932). Domestic cattle: numerous adults, in a single lot; Uganda Veterinary Service collections.