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AMBLYOMMA RHINCCEROIIS (de Gear, 1778) (2 A. PETERSI Karsch, 1878)
(Figures 84 to 87)
THE RHINCEEROS AMBLYOMMA
L N Q 5‘ EQUATQRIA PROVINCE REDCRDS 1. Torit on grass Dec (320) 2 2 Kajo Kaji on grass .. (BMNH)
The Sudan Government collection specimens were collected by H. H. King. British Museum (Natural History) specimens were taken by Captain C. M. Stigand.
DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN
U221» Nile: Bor (King 1926).
D I STRIBUTION
1_\. _rhinocerotis occurs in central, eastern, and southeastern Africa apparently wherever the rhinoceros is found.
[WEST AFRICA: LIBERIA: Bequaert (l93OA) states that Neumann's (l90l,19lI) Liberian records of this species, repeated by Bedford and Hewitt (1925) and by Bedford (193212) are in error. mama EQUATORIAL AFRICA: Neumann (1899) listed A. aureum (a synonym of A. rhinocero.. tis) from "Ngourou Plains, Zanzibar“. It is probable that tfis local, ‘it? is actually N'Gourou, Ubangi_Shari, French Equatorial Africa_.7
CENTRAL AFRICA: BELGIAN CONGO (Schwetz 1927A. River Misisi, Schwetz 192% p. 92, is in Uganda. Tone1li..Ronde11i 1930A. Bequaert 1931 .
NOTE: According to Theiler (correspondence), the record for Ruanda...Urundi by Santos Dias (195l,D) is in error.
EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (King 1926. Hoogstraal l95LB,C).
BRITISH SCMALILAN (Neumann 1922. Stella 1938A,1939A,1940). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (Tone1li_Ronde1li 1930A. Stella 1940).
KENYA (Neave 1912. Neumann 1913,1922. Anderson l921,A,B. Robinson 1926. Bedford 1932B. Lewis 19310 ,l93l.. Weber 1948). UGANDA (Neave 1912. Neumarm 1922. Robinson 1926. Schwetz 19270, p. 92, as Belgian Congo. Bequaert 1930A, p. 803. Mettam 1932, 1933. Wilson 19503). TANGANYIKA (Neumann l90l,l907C,l9l0B,l9ll. Neave 1912. Morstatt 1913. Robinson 1926. J. B. Walker; un.. published).
SOUTHERN AFRICA: NORTHERN RHGDESIA (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926). ESIA (Jack 1942). NYASALAND (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926. Wilson 1950B). MOZAMBIQUE (Karsch 1878. Neumann 1911. Santos Dias l947A,1953B). UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Breijer 1915; Bedford and Hewitt 1925. Curson 1928. Bedford 19323, 1936 .
OUTLYING ISLLNDS: MADAGA%AR: Neumann (l90l,l9ll). P0135011 (19 . cc 1 y record probably erroneous, cf. Hoogstraal (l953E). ZANZIBAR: Neumann (1899) probably in error, see WEST AFRICA above_.7
[' Note: Neumann (1899) listed JAVA for the synonymous A. aureum fit subsequently (1908) he stated that the specimen on which this record was based was actually testudinarium._7
All workers list as hosts either the black rhinoceros, Diceros
bicornis, or the white or square_lipped rhinoceros, Ceratotherium si mum, the latter in both the northern and southern areas of 1' ts range. Other animals that uncommonly serve as hosts are: eland éNeumann 19070 ,191OB,l9ll), tortoise (Bedford 1936), and python Mettam 1932). Domestic cattle: numerous adults, in a single
lot; Uganda Veterinary Service collections.
The frequent records of specimens taken from grass are due to the large size and conspicuousness of the rhinoceros amblyomma.
This species often has been referred to as A. tersi (Karsch, 1878), but according to Schulze (l932A), this nahe s synonymous with A. rhinocerotis (de Geer, 1778). This decision is acceptable for the present, BEE it must be noted that Theiler (correspondence) is far from certain of its validity. Obviously needed is a careful study of the original material and literature by a competent contem. porary student with full access to pertinent specimens.
The specific name rhinocerotis (de Geer, 1778) frequently has been applied to Dermacentor rhinocerinus (Denn , 1843). However, as Bequaert (l93UE) pointed out, fihnitz (l9l0B has long ago indi_ cated that de Geer's specimens belonged in the genus Amblyomma be. cause of their longer palpi.
The remarkable parallel or convergent evolution of rhinoceros_ infesting Ambl omma and Dermacentor ticks, and the relationship of
Cosmiomma amense (fienny, I343), a hyalommalike beast, is wohthy of spec s y.
The capsule of larval haller's organ in A. rhinocerotis has been noted by Schulze (1941), who also (l95OK) dIscuss5d the adult
dentition of this species.
Males, at least 8.0 mm. long and 7.0 mm. wide, are as large as any other African amblyomma. The scutum lacks lateral grooves, has bicolored festoons, small and flat eyes, extensive pale (yellowish) ornamentation on a dark (reddish-brown) background, and a few large scattered punctations. The leg segments have nar_ row pale distal rings.
Females are also very large, approximately 9.0 mm. long and 8.0
mm. w1' de. The scutum is largely pale (reddish or golden) with lat... eral margins and small internal areas dark reddish-brown; it bears few coarse punctations on the anterior half but numerous fine punc_ tations; eyes are flat or very slightly convex. The leg segments exhibit narrow, pale distal rings.