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1933). PGRTUCESE GUINEA (Howard 1908. Tendeiro l947,1948,l949B, l95lA,C,D,F,l952A,C,D,E 1953,1954. Bacelar 1950). BIJAGOS ISLANDS CTendeiro 19531).

CENTRAL AFRICA: camnnoous CZiemann 19121. Warbuton 1927. Joncheres 1934. hardez 1934. Rageau 195l,l953A,B. Rousselot l95l,1953B. Unsworth 1952. Dezest 1953). RIO MUNI ("North Central Rio Munf': Hoogstraal collection). FRENCH EQUATGRIAL AFRICA (Fiasson 1943B. Blane, Brunneau, and Chabaud 1950A. Giroud 1951. Rousselot 195l,l953A,B).

BELGIAN CONGO and RUANA_URUNDI (Newstead, Dutton, and Todd 1907. Massey 1908. Roubaud and Van Saceghem 1916. Nuttall and Warburton 1916. Van Saceghem 1918. Seydel 1925. Robinson 1926. Schwetz l927A,B,C,l932,l933B,l934. Schouteden 1929. Bequaert l930A,B,1931. Tonelli_Rode1li 1930A. Bouvier 1945. Giroud and Jadin 1950. Giroud 1951. Jadin and Giroud 1951. Schoenaers l95lA,B. Rousselot 195l,l953B. Reference to Belgian Congo by Berge and Lennette 1953 should be French Equatorial Africa. Theiler and Robinson 1954. Santos Dias 19540. Van Vaerenbergh 1954 .

HAST AFRICA: SUDAN (Balfou 1904,1906. King 1908,l9l1,l926. Hoogstra§1 1952I,l954B).

ETHIOPIA (Pavesi 1884A. Neumann l899,l902B,l9ll,l922. Robin. son 1926. Stella l938A,1939A,B,l940. Roetti 1939. Charters 1946. D'Ignazio and Mira 1949. Hoogstraal 19540). ERITREA (Franchini l929D,E. Tonelli_Rondel1i 19301. Niro 1935. Stella l938A,l939A, 1940. Ferro_Luzzi 1948). FRENCH SOMALILAND CRobinson 1926. Ste1_ la 1940. Hoogstraal 19530). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (Franchini 19261, 1927,1929c. Niro 1935. Stella l938A,l939A,1940).

KENYA (Neave 1912. Neumann 1922. Anderson l924A,B. Robinson 1926. Daubney l927,1930A,B,1933,1934,l936B. Walker 1927, 1929. Tonel1i_Rondelli 19301. Lewis l93lA,B,C,l932A,B,l934, l939A,B. Daubney and Hudson l931A,B,l934. Roberts 1935. Love. ridge 1936A. Fotheringham and Lewis 1937. Mulligan 1938. Dick and Lewis 1947. Weber 1948. White 1949. Binns 1951. van Someren 1951. Worsley 1952. Wilson 1953. Wiley 1953. Hammond 1954. See also IDENTIFICATION under A. Emposum, p. 245).

UGANDA (A. Theiler 1910A. Bruce it al 1911. Neave 1912. Neumarm 1922. Robinson 1926. RichardsonI930. Mettam 1932,1933. Carmichael 1934. Mettam and Carmichael 1936. Wilson 1948ASB,C,

l95(II ,l953. Clifford 1954. Hoogstraal 19540. Taylor 1954 TANGANYIKA (Gerst'5.cker 1873. Neumann 1911. Neave 1912. Morstatt 1913. Jarvis 1918. Robinson 1926. Moreau 1933. Cornell 1936. Reichenow 1941B. Beakbane and Wilde 1949. Wilson 1953. Smith

1955).

SOUTHERN AFRICA: ANGOLA (Neumarm 1899,1911. Santos Dias 1950B.

Sousa Dias IQU). MJZAMBIQUE (Karsch 1878. Howard 1908. Neumann 1911. Robinson 1926. Theiler 1943B. Santos Dias l9l.7A,l949E,

1950B,l954H,1955A. Bacelar 1950. Wilson 1953).

NCRTHERN RHODESIA (Neave 1912. Robinson l%6. Morris 1933, l935,l937,1938,l939,1940. LeRoux l93l+,l937,l9l.7. Matthysse 1954. Theiler and Robinson 1954). SOUTHERN RHDESIA (Koch 1903. Sinclair 1916. Jarvis 1918. Jack 192l,l928,1937,191.2). NYASALAHD (Old 1909. Neave 1912. De Meza l9l8A,B. Robinson 1926. Wilson

191.3 ,l946,1950B)

[union or SOUTH AFRICA: Absent (Alexander 1931). “Rarely prresent“ (Theiler 1943B). Dr. Theiler (1950 correspondence) states that A. varierratum is actually absent from the Union and from SOUTH. wssr ‘Ar'Bfi“‘__c . See REMARKS below. Early literature records for this species in the Union of South Africa are: Howard 1908, GalliValerio 1909, Moore 1912, Bedford 1920, Curson 1928, Cooley 1934,

Bedford and Graf 1939_.7

OUTLYING ISLANDS: ZANZIBAR (Neumann 1899,1911. Neave 1912.

Aders I9I'7). IEURITIUS (Neumann 1899 1911. De Charmoy 1914,1915. Robinson 1926. Moutia and Mamet 1947). MADAGASCAR (Neumann 1899,

1911. Joyemc 1915. Robinson 1926. Biick 1935 ,l948A,C ,l9l.9. Buck and Metzger 191.9. Millot 191.8. Zumpt 1950B. Courdurier, B'&e1< and Quesnel 1952. Hoogstraal 1953E). REUNION (Neumann 1899. Millot 1948. Gillard 1949). COMORES anon? (Millot 1948).

ARABIA: YEMEN (Franchini 1930. Girolami 1952. Mount 1953.

sanbo"drn an Hoogstraal 1953. Hoogstraal ms.). “SOUTHERN ARABIA“ (Hoogstraal 19540).

IMPCRTHJ SPECIMENS: Records in the literature for HHPT (Guerl'n.FEnev1'IIe I@¢l843), one of the type localities of synonymous Ixodes elegans) should be discounted. Although A. varie a. tum frequently arrives at the Cairo abattoir on cattle from e Sash and from other areas of East Africa the species has never become established here (Hoogstraal 1952A). Pbctremely few females are found by the time cattle reach Cairo.

A. varie atum has become established and is a serious problem in the (St. Kitts, Guadeloupe, Antigua). As early as 1895, Barber wrote an account, both pleasant and critical, of the ravages of "the gold tick“, A. varie atum = H alomma venustum) in Anti a. See also: Nemfim~), Ticks in the West Indies I-I914), Ford (1919), Saunders (l9l4A,B,l915,l919), Senevet (1938), and Mauze and Mbntigny (1954). It appears that A. varie.

atum has been found in GUATEMALA (Neumann 1899,1911), bEt'£EE¥3

ave been no subsequent reports of its presence there. There has been some question about West Indies records among American workers who have not visited these islands. Numerous specimens from West Indies may be seen in British Museum (Natural History) collections.

Three males are stated to have been found on a dog in southwestern FRANCE (Lamontellerie 1954).

MISCEILANEOUS: The distributional map of Tendeiro (1947) which Inclaes Egypt and Sinai and omits the Sudan and parts of Ethiopia, Eritrea, a.nd the Somalilands, should be modified.

TUNIS has been listed as a collecting locality based on specimens labelled from a hedgehog on Djerba Island collected by A. weiss (Galli-Valerio 19111). Colas-Belcour and Rageau (1951), with ample reason, consider this record doubtful. It may be based on misidentification of an immature Hyalomma sp.

HOSTS

Where it occurs, A. varie atum is often the most common tick on cattle. Its incidence on oéher domestic animals varies locally

but is usually less than on cattle. Among wild animals, the buf. falo and numerous kinds of antelopes are important hosts. Other

wild animals are either rather seldom infested by adults or those
that more frequently harbor them, such as the rhinoceros, general-
ly are not mzmerous in nature. Carnivores are only exceptionally
attacked. Man is rarely utilized as a host by adults, though
nymphs attach more frequently and larvae are sometimes serious
pests. Our knowledge of the host preference of immature stages
is fragmentary. Nymphs feed on moderate size to large animals
including all domestic animals and larvae attack mostly birds

and small 1118111111818 from the size of hares to goats.

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yegsjgg gQm_a;§; Cattle (Practically every reference in the DISIRIBUTION section above pertains to parasitism of cattle by A. varie atum and these need not be repeated here. Selected references to parasitism of other domestic animals are presented below inasmuch as many phases of these relationships are much less obscure than those with cattle). Camels (Robinson 1926*. Hoogstraal, ms.). Shee _ (Robinson 1926, Scmetz 19273, Daubney 1930A, Daubney and H son 931A,B,l934, Lewis 1931C ,l932B,l934, Tendeiro 1948, Rousselot 1951, Sudan records above). Goats (Robinson 1926, Schwetz 19270 Lewis 1994, Beaten 1939*¥I'T3haeire 1948, Sudan records above . Horses (Simpson 1911, Robinson 1926, Schwetz 1927B,

[graphic]

*Hosts listed by Robinson (1926) are based chiefly on the extensive data in the Nuttall collection now in British Museum (Natural History), where it is available to those who would make a further study of host.

relationships .

"Though pinpoint blemishes in the tanned skins of goats are attributed by the (Nigerian) trader to the bites of ticks, this animal has been found to remain uncommonly free of ticks, particularly in the dry season. In the rains, when all domestic animals become grossly infested if not hand dressed, the goat is usually only

parasitized by ....... A. varie atum and then to any extent only in the hollow of the heels, the clefts of the hoof, and in the

perineum. These exceedingly tenacious parasites set up a local inflammation with pus formation due to infection of the wound by organisms of necrosis, particularly in the feet. Severe lameness may be caused, and virus diseases, e.g., heartwater may be transmitted. (Beaton 1939).

Bflck 1935,1948A,C, Gillard 1949, Ragean 1951, Rousselot 1951, Stdan records above). Donke s (Robinson 1926, Tendeiro 1948, Rousselot 1951, Sdan records abgve). Do s (Simpson 1912B, Robinson 1926, Tedeiro 1948, Sudan records abgve. BMNH collections contain

four adults from a dog from Senegal). Cat (Robinson 1926). figs (Schwetz 1927A, Lloverol, Philippe and Idfiovi 1942, Rousselot _ 1951, Sudan records above).

Man: In Madagascar and French West Africa (Joyeu 1915).

Antelo es: Reedbuck (Robinson 1926*, Weber 1948, Wilson 19508, Santos Dias I953B). Bushbuck (Robinson 1926). South African bushbuck (Santos Dias 1953s). Steinbuck (Lewis 19321). Waterbucks, various (Robinson 1926, Tendeiro 19520, Santos Dias 1953B). Roan antelope, various (King 1926, Lewis 1934, Sudan records above). Sable antelope (Robinson 1926, Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1953B). Hartebeest, various (Simpson 1914, Robinson 1926, Lewis 1934, Sudan records above). Kongoni (Robinson 1926). Tiang (Sudan records above). Bland, various (Robinson 1926, Bequaert 193OB,l93l, Lewis 1934, Weber 1948, Wilson 19500, Sudan records above). Nyala (Santos Dias 1953B). Duiker (Loveridge 1936A, Wilson 1950B, Sudan records above). Grant's gazelle (Lewis 1934). Bright's gazelle, Smith's long_snouted dikdik, and Roosevelt's duikerbok (Sudan records above). Oribi, various (Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1953B, Matthysse 1954, Sudan records above).

Other mammals: Giraffe (common on many Bahr El Ghazal giraffes examined, records above). Zebra (Neumann 1911, Robinson 1926*, Lewis 1932s,1934, Weber 1948, Matthysse 1954). Black, or narrow_1ipped rhinoceros (Karsch 1878, Neumann 1911, Robinson 1926, Lewis 1932A, Wilson 19510). White, or square_1ipped rhinoceros (Tonelli_Rondel1i 19301). Elephant (Robinson 1926). Buf_ falo (King 1926, Robinson 1926, Richardson 1930, Bequaert 1930B, 1931, Fiasson 1943B Wilson 19500, Rageau 1951, Santos Dias 1953B, Sdan records above). Warthog (Massey 1908, Robinson 1926, Santos Dias 1953B, Sudan records above). Bushpig (Tone1li_Ronde1li 1930A, Matthysse 1954, Sudan records above). Antbear (Lewis 1932A). Leopard (captive) an hares (Tendeiro 1947,1952C). Cheetah (Lewis 1934). Lion (Theiler, unpublished).

[graphic]
[graphic]

*Hosts listed by Robinson (1926) are based chiefly on the extensive data in the Nuttall collection now in British Museum (Natural History), where it is available to those who would make a further study of host_re1ationships.

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