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a protuberance on the fourth tarsus; and the scutal ornamentation is somewhat different from that usually described for this species (compare with Theiler 1945A description and illustration). However, Theiler (correspondence), who has had more experience with this genus in Africa than anyone else, writes: "A. halli ... to me, is but an extreme variation of A. exornatum, being as far as I can see, the exact replica of A. arcanum Karsch, 187914. In view of this opinion and with Dr. Theiler's permission, A. halli Tendeiro, 1950, has been synonymized under A. exornatum (Koch, 1844) (Hoogstraal 1954B).

DENTIFICATION

Theiler (1945A) described and illustrated the immature stages and redescribed the adult stages of A. exornatum.

Males and females are easily identified by generic characters plus the presence of scutal ornamentation consisting of green or coppery markings on the shiny dark brown surface. Other characters are mentioned in notes under the key to this genus.

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Figures 100 and 101, , dorsal and ventral views Figures 102 and 103, 4, dorsal and ventral views

APONO-AMA LATUM Sudan specimens

PLATE XXXIII

- 287 .

APONAMMA LATU. (Koch, 1844) (= A. LAEVE Neumann, 1899, of authors).

(Figures 100 to 103)

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Bahr El Ghazal: Galual-Nyang Forest, Naja haje, 1953, col lected by H. Hoogstraal and R. E. Kuntz. Same locality, from "cobra", 1953, (SVS). Yirol, from "python", 1954, E. T. M. Reid legit. Specimens in HH collection.

Upper Nile: Kenisa, Nasir, and Er Renk, from cobras, 1909, H. H. King Tegit (SGC).

DISTRIBUTION

The snake tick is distributed throughout the Ethiopian Faunal Region.

WEST AFRICA: NIGERIA (Hoocstraal 19540). LIBERIA (Bequaert 1930AT. FRENCH WEST AFRICA (Villiers 1955). SIERRA LEONE (Entomological Report 1916). GOLD COAST (Curson 1916). PORTUGESE GUINEA (Tendeiro 19510,0,1952C).

Torit snake collections have been studied by Loveridge (1955).

CENTRAL AFRICA: CAMEROONS (Rageau 1953A,B). FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA (Fiasson 1923B). BELGIAN CONGO (Neumann 1899,1911. Nuttall and Warburton 1916, Schwetz 19270,1932. Bequaert 1930A,1931).

NOTE: According to Theiler (correspondence), the record for Ruanda-Urundi by Santos Dias (1954D) is in error.

EAST AFRICA:

SUDAN (King 1908,1911,1926. Hoogstraal 1954B).

ETHIOPIA (Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. Stella 1940).

KENYA (Lewis 19310,1934. Loveridge 1936B. Hoogstraal 1954E). UGANDA (Theiler 1945B. Wilson 1950C. Hoogstraal 1954E). TANGA NYIKA (Neumann 19070 ,1910B,1911. Dönitz 1910.

Dönitz 1910. Morstatt 1913. Loveridge 19230,1928. Bequaert 1930A).

SOUTHERN AFRICA: ANGOLA (Howard 1908. Bacelar 1950). HOZAM BIQUE (Howard 1908. Santos Dias 1948A, 1952D,1953B. Bacelar 1950).

NORTHERN RHODESIA (Theiler 1945B). SOUTHERN RHODESIA (Jack 1942). NYASALAND (Theiler 1945B. Wilson 1950B).

SOUTHWEST AFRICA (Warburton 1922. Theiler 1945B). UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Koch 1844. Neumann 1901. Howard 1908. Dönitz 1910B. Curson 1928. Bedford 1932B,1936. Schulze 1936E. Theiler 1945B. Hoogstraal 19540).

HOSTS

Snakes, without predilection for any one group (Theiler 1945B). Host genera recorded by various authors are: Python, Simo cephalus, Pseudaspis, Naja, Lycophidion (= Lycophidium), Mehelya, Senedon, Dendroaspis E Dendraspis), Causus, Bitis, Dasypeltis, Boaedon, and Rhamphiophis. Also the Debasian snake Crotaphopeltis = Leptodira) hotamboeia (Neumann 1907,1910B). In addition to some of these same host genera, Miss J. B. Walker's (

(correspondence) Tanganyika collections contain specimens from Rhamphiophis oxyrhynchus rostratus. Philothamnus i. irregularis = Chloropis emini (Hoogstraal 1954C). Most host records are for large, poisonous snakes, possibly because of the great interest they always arouse when collected. Yet I have examined hundreds of smaller African snakes without finding Aponomma ticks on them.

Acontias plumbeus, a blind, limbless, viviparous lizard has been listed as a South African host (Bedford 1936).

A single female in BM(NH) collections was taken with A. exornatum from Varanus e. albigularis, the coastal monitor lizard, in Kenya, and another female has been noted from a porcupine in Zulu land (Hoogstraal 1954C).

BIOLOGY

The snake tick sometimes occurs in great numbers on a single host. Loveridge (19230) states: This snake (Dasypeltis scabra) was literally covered with ticks, 75 of which I collected". Lar. vae, nymphs and adults are often taken from a single host (Lewis 1934, Rageau 1953B).

Specimens are usually found between the host's dorsal scales, especially just behind the neck, sometimes on the head, rarely on the venter.

DISEASE RELATIONS

Unstudied.

REMARKS

The most complete recent work on this species is by Theiler (1945B). The taxonomic review shows that A. laeve Neumann, 1899, is actually a non African species and that A. Tatum (Koch, 1844) has priority for the African species. Immature stages were des cri bed and illustrated and adults were redescribed and illustrated in the same study.

Should specimens agreeing with characters of this species but having a very wide, quadrate body outline be encountered in the Sudan, they should be checked (cf. Theiler 1945B) for A. transversale Lucas, 1844, the python tick, which Theiler states (correspondence) may be expected to occur in this area. The male of A. transversale lacks an anal groove and is incompletely chitinized on the posterior

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