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HAEHAPHYSALIS ACICULIFER
Sifian specimens

-344

HAEMAPHYSALIS ACICULIFER Warbuton, 1913.
(Figures 128 to 131)
TH SHARP-SPURRED HAEMAPHSALID

L N 9 6' EQUATORIA PROVINCE RECORDS

[graphic]

1 Lotti Forest Prao s tullbergi sudanensis Apr 1 Torit Eemnisco s striatus massaicus Dec 1 2 Torit 5{'1FeBl'a ourebl ae uatoria Apr 1 Torit Ilcela hus Buselaphus rooseve tl Apr Alungwe Alcela hus busela hus subspp. Jun SGC 2 Atiambo ) ( ) ("several") Muragatika Rofi Eefassa subspp. Aug ""_’ (Weber 1948) 1 Nagichot domestic cattle Jul

Lotti Forest is at [.500 feet elevation and Nagichot is at 6500 feet elevation. Weber's (191.8) report is the only previous one of this species from the Suian.

DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN

Bahr KL Ghazal: All from tiang, Damaliscus korri an , 1953. . Reid I

ti 10“, E T5 miles north of Tong, March, E. T. M a it with adults of Ambl omma varie atum . 4:38‘, 799, Galual.Nya.ng Forest, H ocE I '5 M

July, N. A. anc eg . aterial in HH collection.
DISTRIBUTION

_I_{. aciculifer ranges across Africa in scattered highlands and forests from 5515 El Ghazal Province south to Mozambique. It has been transported on cattle to the Union of South Africa, where it has become established 1ocaJ.ly (Theiler 19453).

wasr AFRICA: NIGERIA (Unsworth 1949,1952. Gambles 1951). cow ~mmon 1911.. Nuttall and Warburton 1915).

CENTRAL AFRICA: cmmoons (Unsworth 1952). FRENCH EQUATORIAL MRIC~usse ot 951; not repeated 195313). BELGIAN conoo (Tonelli. Rondelli 19301. Bequaert 1931. Theiler and Robinson 1954).

NOTE: According to Theiler (correspondence), the record for Ruanda..Urundi by Santos Dias (l95LD)is in error.

mar AFRICA: sum: (weber 19/.8. Hoogstraal 1951.13).

mm (Lewis l93lC,l932A,l934. Theiler 1945c). ucmmm (Wan. burton l9l3. Tonelli..Rondelli 1930A. Mettam 1932. Theiler 1945C.

Wilson l950A,C). TANGANYIKA (J . B. Walker, unpublished; see HOSTS below .

SOUTHERN AFRICA: MOZAMBIQUE (Santos Dias 1953B). UNION OF

wm~d 1932B,1934. R. du Toit l942B,l9l,7A. Intro. duced from East Africa: Theiler 191.50).

I;0I‘E: ll. aciculifer does not occur on Madagascar (Hoogstraal 1953E .

HOST S

Antelopes are the most common hosts of adult I_{. aciculifer. Other wild animals and domestic animals are rarely attacgd.

Rodents, small antelopes, and possibly hares appear to be the chief hosts of the immature stages.

Domestic cattle have been reported as hosts in Uganda (Wilson l950A,C), Kenya (Lewis 1931+ and Theiler 191.56), and the Union of South Africa (Theiler 19456). Lewis (19321) noted a single specimen from a domestic goat in a Somali village between Karati Forest and Naivasha. Rousselot (1951) reported a female from a domestic dog in French Equatorial Africa.

Antelopes hosts of adult ticks are the Uganda kob (Warburton 1913), reedbuck (Simpson 1914, Nuttall and Warburton 1915, Bed.ford 193213, Theiler 191,56), bushbuck (Lewis 1931C,l932A, Mettam 1932, Theiler 191.50), waterbuck (Lewis 193lC,l932A, Mettam 1932), various duikers (Mettam 1932, Lewis 1932A), Thomson's gazelle (Lewis 1931+), oribi and Roosevelt's hartebeest (Equatoria Province records above), and tiang (Bahr El Ghazal Province record above).

Miscellaneous hosts of adults are buffalo (Lewis 1931C), serval cat (Bedford 1936, Theiler 19450), mongoose (Theiler 19450), and wild cat (Felis l'bica group) (Hoogstraal, Kenya collecting). The probability that et am's (1932) records of this species from unidentified birds refer to Q. hoodi hoodi should be considered.

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Nymphs have been found on the bushbuck, waterbuck, duiker, buffalo, warthog, and hare according to Lewis (l932A), but these records need checking for accuracy of identification. Lewis (l932A) reared H. aciculifer on hares. Examination of 49 Thou; son's gazelles In Tanganylka yielded only a single nymph and no further specimens of this tick were found on many other game animals examined there (J. B. Walker, unpublished). Our Equatoria Province collections contain nymphs from a striped grassmouse, Lemniscomys striatus massaicus, and from an oribi, Ourebia ourebi

aeguatorla.

A larva from a forest rat, Praeo s tullber i sudanensis, in Lotti Forest (listed above) is apparenlly e o y record §§tant for this stage in nature.

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[merged small][merged small][graphic]

Lewis (l932A) reared the three_host g. aciculifer on laboratory hares in a minimum of 107 days. His data, are as follows:

PERIOD nus
Preoviposition 9 (1990. to 21°C.)
Oviposition to hatching 20 (2200. to 25°c.)

Larval prefeeding period
Larva feeds

Premolting period
Nymphal prefeeding period
Nymph feeds

Premolting period

Adult prefeeding period
Adult (female) feeds

(21°c. to 24%.)

(2l°c . to 25% .)

P4 sleeseesee

Ecology

In Kenya, H. aciculifer is found usually in forested areas at about 7500 feet-elevation (Lewis 1932A). The writer's experience in Kenya and Sudan confirm that this is mostly a highland species (4500 to 8000 feet elevation) but that it is also present at lower altitudes (Torit, 2000 feet elevation). Records tend to indicate that where this species occurs at lower altitudes it is in more humid habitats but this subject requires further field study.

Theiler (191.50) discussed the distribution of 51. aciculifer on cattle in localized areas of northern and eastern Transvaal where it sometimes occurs on neighboring farms and at other times on distant isolated farms. The scattered distribution is believed to be due largely to the incidence of cattle importation from East Africa and to the ability of introduced ticks to maintain themselves in new areas.

In South Africa, H. aciculifer survives in regions with from fifteen to fifty incheg of annfial rainfall but especially where thirty or more inches fall each year. These include subtropical evergreen and deciduous tree and thorn forest areas, open park; land areas in highlands, subtropical parkland areas, tall grass areas, and rarely short grasslands adjacent to highveld. H. aciculifer ranges from lowlands to highveld at 4500 feet elevation 553 is present only where winters are not severe, though it may survive where occasional light frosts occur.

DISEASE RELATIONS

Unstudied.

IDENTIFICATION

Hales: Measure from 1.8 mm. to 1.9 m. long, and from 1.1 mm. to 1.3 mm. wide. They may be recognized among the African fauna by the long, needlelike spur of coxa IV. The basis capituli is rectangular with well developed cornua; the palpal outline (Figures l28 and 129) is unique in the African faua. The smooth scutum has small, shallow puctations; the lateral grooves may reach only the scutal midlength or they may be much longer.

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