« PreviousContinue »
I I -
-\uLvv.4\e\¢ ~ .» 754 n
..~v.<..~\¢v ...~e1.! 8.4a
. ....L¢ Can.
n A o n 0 v c It .1 a 0 ..a 0.. o_ . . . . . Al . . ..
. .. . . 0 .. . .........-..... -.._..r.;....r..
O U. .. _.a.OlvQI0I-I»0\O
. a 0 ¢ . . . an - Olorc. . 0 . .. ... . . . . . . < v. . l . .\ I 0 u . u 0 _ 1 . . . . . . . . . . I .. . .. . . N0 L‘. . -.4 ‘ ‘ Q | a 0 . . 1 \~ u. 1. -6.14,... i.:n- bi . %-no ..4..-.0‘ . out . . , .. A‘ _ .. -. o.s. .v.. .. .... Q.-.. a...a...¢.i-.<.n... .¢..»..a..... .... . - A . . Q .I0 .Q..\. Q 1 c .Q. n ». . . .. . - O-.. . one 0 . a..o , .0 r ‘-5.: r....». . . . 1... . T. u.. .¢.-..o.-....0--. . . . . . . . . n . . . _ . I n . 0 o . > a . u. i . ‘I ‘ . O I \ Q10: . Q . 0 u l . . . 1 v . . 0.. - . ... .~.. . . -.. ..Iv |-.. __ . 0;:-.n¢\t Inl0I&|I4nOI.'I.O -I0¢O~.. . > I I I 0 ’ I I oil 0 CD I U I F‘ '_ I I I I I | 'lI:II I I
seem. . 2
- Q n
Figures 136 and 137, 63 dorsal and ventral views
Figures 138 and 139, Q, dorsal and ventral views
HAEMAPHYSALIS HOODI HOODI
l Torit Francolinus cla rtoni gedgii Dec 2 Torit Efienorfinchus a%m11 Jan
In Torit District, we closely examined over 200 each francolins and Uganda tufted guineafowl (Numida mele is ma'or), and many other birds, without finding eHH'i'£En epecime_J7‘he 0 this tick, It would appear, therefore, that H. hoodi hoodi is uncommon in the savannah of eastern Sudan. -'
DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN
Bahr El Ghazal: One 9 from tchagra shrike Tch a sene alo remi 1' aria , Guar, Cogrial Subdistrict February: ~d flohamed El Sayed legit (HH collection).
This and the Torit collections are the only Sudanese records of this avian parasite.
The African avian haemaphysalid ranges through tropical Africa and into southern Africa, but is possibly more common in western Africa and Uganda than elsewhere. A related subspecies, madgas. cariensis Colas.Belcour and Millot, 1948, occurs on Madagascar and otEr cIosely related species form a tight complex in the Oriental Region (Hoogstraal l953E).
weer AFRICA: omen (Warburton and Nuttall 1909). cam coAs'r“(TFt't'cJ'1_u and Warburton 1915). mmrcn wssr AFRICA (Villiers 1955). SIERRA LEONE (Simpson's 1913 record of H. leachii from a bush shrike possibly refers to H. hoodi hoodi. -Nu"EEI1_'and War. burton 1915). PORTUGUESE GUINEA ('I'<'eR3ir"'“J.'9e 4'7,191.8,1951c,1>, l952A,C .13).
CENTRAL AFRICA: CAMLEROONS (Rageau 1953A,B. Numerous specimens seen E El). FRENCH EQUATORIAL AIRICA (Specimens from Djambala, Moyen Congo; CNHM).
BELGIAN CONGO: Bequaert (1931) states that while this spe.. cies ;d not been found in the Congo, it can be expected to occur here.
mar AFRICA: summ (Hoogstraal 1954B). UGANDA (Neave 1912. Nmt~wton 1915. Mettam 1932. Lucas 1954. See HOSTS below). mm (Hoogstraal 1951.0).
SOUTHFRN AFRICA: NYASALAND (Neave 1912. Nuttall and War-bur.. ton l9I5. W1‘ Ison I950B). MOZAMBIQUE (As H. africana: Howard 1909A. Nuttall and Warburton 1915. Santos D~,1%3B, 1954C; see HOSTS below. Hoogstraal 1954C. Theiler, correspondence; see HOSTS below). UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Bedford and Hewitt 1925. Bedford 1932B. Theiler, correspondence; see HOSTS below).
_1_I. hoodi hoodi parasitizes birds exclusively, chiefly those kinds that are Ebitual ground feeders. See BIOLOGY below.
"Fowls" (i.e. ?domestic chickens) (Warburton and Nuttall 1909). Domestic chickens (Tendeiro 1947. Lucas 1954).
Burche1_1's coucal, Centro sene alensis burchelli (Howard 1909). Western blue.he e coucal, _. monao us occidentalis (Ra. geau 1953B. Others seen by HH). Senegal coucal, C. sene Eensis (Tendeiro 1948, Villiers 1955, and Nuttall and Warburton I915).
Guinea fowl, Numidia male is, plaintain eater, G oschizorhis leo ldi, and "partridge" iNuttall and Warburton 19% ). Refiing _'EI"_eter ing, On cho athus (= A rdrus) morio (Bedford and Hewitt 1925). East African BIue_eared starIing, Lamorocolius chloro terus elisabeth (Santos Dias l952D). Clapper Iark, Mirafa Fischeri zomBae (French Equatorial Africa specimens noted a.Eve). Falcon (Theiler, unpublished). Tchagra shrike (Hoogstraal 1954-'B,C,
Sudan record above). Double..spurred francolin, Francolinus
bicalcaratus (Cameroons, J. Mouchet legit, HH det). Sp\n'I'owl or
francolin (Francolinus spp., Pternistls sp.) (Santos Dias l953D, 19543, Hoog~,C, and STJHan record above). White..browed
scrub robin, hro ia leucop§§ys lim ensis (Santos Dias l95LD). Abdimis stor§ (Hoogstra 954B, ggdan record above). Uganda hosts of specimens identified for the Museum of Con»
parative Zoology are: grey hornbill, Lo hoceros 2. nasutus; Grant's crested francolin, F. seghaena grant 1; yellow-Beaked
francolin, E. icterorh chus; ssinian gono ak, Laniarius erythrogasterz and several individuals of both ki s o guinea ow e y noted from Equatoria Province, Sudan.
Additional, recently obtained host data (Theiler, correspond
ence) is as follows: Centro us su rciliosus from Uganda; "partridges" from East Lon on, eastern gape, and southern Transvaal,
South Africa; Turdoides gardinei and Orthocha ra senegal from Maringua, Mozam ique; an co biramicus from Pie ermaritzburg, Natal.
The possibility that the record of a nymphal_§. leachii muhsami from a tchagra shrike in Mozambique (Santos Dias I9§4C) refers actually to §. hoodi hoodi should be considered.
The subject of parasitism of birds by ticks has been reviewed briefly by Schulze (193213).
Aside from indications that H. hoodi hoodi feeds exclusively on birds, chiefly on those that feed on the ground, and that all of its stages occur on a single host, little else is known of their biology. If domestic chickens were frequently attacked, more reports probably would have appeared in the literature. In Portugese Guinea, however, Tendeiro (1947) reports this parasite to be common on domestic chickens and in Entebbe, Uganda (Lucas 1954), a flock of chickens was found so heavily infested that a number of hosts died or were badly debilitated.
The distribution of §. hoodi hoodi presumably is much more continuous in tropical Africa than present meagre records indicate. Phylogenetically, Q. hoodi and related species, all of which closely resemble it, represents an old, quite static lineage. In Africa, Madagascar, Asia, and outlying islands these ticks parasitize only birds. Related species infest primitive mammals such as hedgehogs (insectivores), and also reptiles.
DOMESTIC CHICKENS. Fatal anaemia has been reported.
Males. Palpi basally are widely salient, straight and lacking dorsaI or ventral spurs; laterally they are sharply and narrowly re. curved basally and thence taper gradually to a narrow apex; segment 3 approximates segment 2 in length and medially bears a notably small and wide spur that is usually medially directed. The rectan. gular basis capituli has small but distinct cornua. The scutum is beset with a moderate number of fairly large, shallow punctations; lateral grooves include the first festoon and extend to the anterior third of the scutum; cervical grooves are shallow, concave, and extend more or less to the apical level of the lateral grooves. Coxae bear a small posterior spu, that of III may be obsolete and that of IV may be smaller than illustrated (Figure 137). Tarsi are moderately short and abruptly tapered; they bear a very small ven. tral apical hook. Size varies from 1.3 mm. to 2.0 mm. long and from 1.0 mm. to 1.4 mm. wide.
Female palpi are like those of the male except that they are slightly Iess salient basally and more conical and elongate. The basis capituli is rectangular with very small cornua and a slightly concave basal margin; the porose areas are shallow and indistinct, The scutum is broadly oval, slightly longer than wide, and gradual. ly converging posteriorly; punctations are evenly scattered and rather large; cervical grooves are slightly concave and may remh the posterior third of the scutum. Tarsi taper soewhat more gradually than in males. The body becomes considerably extended when engorged.
The larvae and n m h have been described and illustrated by Nuttall and Narburton 15).