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but in muhsami the basal spurs may be more reduced. The basis capituli 18 short and wide, with lateral margins widely diverging anteriorly, and the cornua are usually smaller and weaker than those of leachii. The coxal spurs are comparable with those of leachii, an important criterion for separating this subspecies from some other equally small, not otherwise greatly differing species in Africa.
The scutal size varies from 1.3 mm. to 2.2 mm. long and from 0.8 mm. to 1.2 mm. wide. A majority of specimens fall within the lower size range and are easily recognizable. The few larger specimens may be typical or they may approach the form of the subspecies leachii in shape of palpal lateral margin or in development of palpal spurs. The smaller and more compact size and shape of muhsami. is almost always reflected in stouter and more abruptly tapering tarsi.
Females. Like males, this sex is smaller, rounder, and more compact than females of leachii. The scutal length is about equal to or only very slightly greater than the width; the posterior margin is more broadly rounded; the pımctations are rather large and moderate in mumbers; and the cervical grooves are more con cave and more distant from each other. The palpal outline usual ly has the lateral margin definitely concave; the ventral basal spur is absent but the dorsal basal spur is quite variable; the ventral retrograde spur of segment 3 is like that of the male and of the subspecies le achii. The basis capituli in all avail able specimens is definitely short and wide with lateral margins distinctly diverging anteriorly and the cornua are usually broad ly tapered and short. Coxal spurs correspond to those of the male. Tarsi tend to be shorter, stouter, and more abruptly tapered than those of female leachii.
Figures 154 and 155, 0, dorsal and ventral views Figures 156 and 157, 9, dorsal and ventral views
These localities, all in the central area of the east bank of Equatoria Province, lie between 4500 feet and 6500 feet elevation. H. parmata has not been found in other Provinces of the Sudan. The Noli Hils specimen is somewhat atypical, see REMARKS below.
H. permata is a quite common Central and West African tick that ranges in smaller numbers into the forested highlands of eastern Africa. It is especially numerous in the Cameroons.
WEST AFRICA: GOLD COAST (Nuttall and Warburton 1915). FRENCH WEST ARICA (Villiers 1955). SIERRA LEONE (Simpson 1913. Nuttall and Warburton 1915). NIGRIA (Ziemann 1905. Neumann 1911. Simpson 1912B. Nuttall and Warburton 1915).
CENTRAL AFRICA: CAMEROONS (Neumann 1905,1911. Ziemann 1905, 19124. Nuttall and Warburton 1915. Rageau 1951,1953A,B. Hoogstraal 19540). RIO MUNI (Numerous specimens in HH collection from north central part of state; K. C. Brown legit; gift of Colonel R. Traub). FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA (Flasson 1943B. Rousselot 1951,1953B. Hoogstraal 19540). BELGIAN CONGO and RUANDA_URUNDI (Nuttall and Warburton 1915,1916. Bequaert 1930A,B,1931. Schoenaers 1951A,B. Van Vaerenbergh 1954. Santos Dias 1954D. See HOSTS below).
KENYA (Neave 1912, Anderson 19244. Neumann 1913. Nuttall and Warburton 1915. Lewis 1931A,C. As H. calcarata: Lewis
As H. bispinosa: Lewis 1934. Lovertage 1936A. Hoogstraal 19540). UGANDA (Nuttall and Warburton 1915. Mettam 1932. Theiler 1945C).
[ SOUTHERN AFRICA: MOZAMBIQUE: Santos Dias (1954F); not typical specimens fi description and illustrations are correct. UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: Theiler (19450) states that this species actually has not been found in the Union of South Africa, and (correspondence) that Curson's (1928)_and Bedford's (1932B) records from Zululand are misidentifications.)
NOTE: Records from Sumatra (Galll-Valerio 1909B) undoubtedly are based on erroneous identification.
The chief hosts of adults are antelopes; any domestic animal may be attacked. Immature stages parasitize carnivores and ante lopes and larvae have been recorded from forest birds.
Domestic animals: Cattle (Neumann 1905,1911, Ziemann 1905, 1912A, Nuttall and Warburton 1915,1916, Mettam 1932, Schoenaers 1951A,B, Rageau 1953B, Hoogstraal 1954B, Sudan records above). Sheep (Neumann 1905,1911, Ziemann 1905, Mettam 1932, Rageau 1953B). Goats (Neumann 1905,1911, Ziemann 1905,1912A, Mettam 1932, Rageau 1953B). Dogs (Ziemann 1912A, Mettam 1932, Rousselot 1951, Rageau 1953B). Pigs (Rageau 1953B). (?Domestic) Pigs (Neumann 1905, 1911, Ziemann 1905).
Antelopes: Hartebeest (Nuttall and Warburton 1915. Mettam 1932). Bushbuck (Simpson 1913, Lewis 19310, Nuttall and Warburton 1915, Bequaert 1931, Mettam 1932, Hoogstraaí 19540). Harnessed antelope (Nuttall and Warburton 1915). Royal antelope, black duiker, bay duiker (Villiers 1955). Bushbuck and Maxwell's duiker (Cameroons, J. Mouchet legit, HH det.). Impala and Harvey's duiker
(Hoogstraal 19540), Blue duiker (Mettam 1932, Hoogstraal 1954B, Sudan record above). Forest or red duiker (Mettam 1932). Duiker and "forest antelopes" (Rio Muni specimens noted above). Okapi (Belgian Congo specimens, MCZ, HH identified).
Other wild animals: Water chevrotain (Bequaert 1931 and Onderstepoort collection). Buffalo (Nuttall and Warburton 1915, Mettam 1932). Bushpig (apparently from Ziemann's (1905) remarks for "pigs": Nuttali and Warburton 1915).
All the following records are for nymphs unless larvae are also noted.
Antelopes: Harnessed antelope (Nuttall and Warburton 1915). "Duiker" (Fiasson 1943B, Rousselot 1951). Harvey's duiker (Hoogstraal 19540). "Forest antelopes" (Rio Muni specimens noted above). Nymphs and larvae from bushbuck (Theiler 1945C) and from duiker (Theiler, unpublished). Larvae from "duiker" (Rio Muni specimens noted above).
Carnivores: Genet and mongoose (Hoogstraal 19540). Domestic dog (Rio Muni specimens noted above). Civet, and larvae and nymphs from genet (Cameroons, J. Mouchet legit, HH det.).
Other mammals: Black and rufous elephant shrow, Rhinonax petersi, Trom Tanganyika (Theiler, unpublished).
Birds: Larvae and nymphs from forest guineafowl (Hoogstraal 1954B; Sudan record above).
Available data indicate that H. parmata inhabits humid, forested regions of West Africa but that more easterly populations find optimum conditions for survival chiefly in forest and uplands. Neumann's (1913) and Lewis' (19310) Kenya reports were from areas between 1000 feet and 8000 feet altitude. In Ruanda-Urundi, this tick is found up to about 5600 feet elevation (Schoenaers 1951B).