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msr AFRICA: summ (Hoogstraal 1951.15).
KENYA (Neave 1912. Anderson 192.'.A. Nemnann 1913. Nuttall a.nd Warburton 1915. Lewis l93lA,C. As H. calcarata: Lewis 1931B. As H. bis inosa: Lewis 1931.. Ldveridge I936A. Hoogstraal 19540). UGIND u and Uarburton 1915. Mettam 1932. Theiler
[sorrrmszm AFRICA: MULAMBIQUE: Santos Dias (l954F); not typical specimens if description and illustrations are correct. UNION 01-" SOUTH AFRICA: Theiler (191.50) states that this species actually has not been found in the Union of South Africa, and (correspondence) that Curson's (1928) and Bedford's (l932B) records from Zululand are msidmtificationsj
NOTE: Records from Sunatra (Ga11i_Valerio 190913) undoubtedly
are basad on erroneous identification. HOSTS
The chief hosts of adults are antelopes; any domestic animal my be attacked. Immature stages parasitize carnivores and ante. lopes and larvae have been recorded from forest birds.
Domestic animals: Cattle (Neumann 1905 .1911, Ziemann 1905, l9l2lTNE£tEIl“s_sH'Tsburtoh 1915,1916, Mettam 1932, Schoenaers 195lA,B, Rageau 195313, Hoogstraal 1951.13, sedsh records above). Sheep Neumann 1905,1911, ziemshh 1905, Mettam 1932, Rageau 195313). Goats Neumann 1905,1911, Ziennnn 1905 ,l912A, Mettam 1932, Rageau 1953B . Dogs (Ziemann 1912A, Mettam 1932 Rousselot 1951, Rageau 195312 . Pigs Rageau 195312). (?Domestic) Pigs (neumhn 1905,1911, Ziemann 1905).
Antelo s: Hartebeest (Nuttall and Harbrurton 1915. Mettam 1932~k (Simpson 1913, Lewis 19310, NuttaJ.1 and Uarburton 1915, Bequaert 1931, Mettam 1932, Hoogstraal 1951.0). Harnessed antelope (Nuttall and Iarburton 1915). Royal antelope , black duiker, bay duiker (Vi1J.iers 1955). Bushbuck and Maxwell's duiker (Cameroons, J. Mouchet legit, ma det.). Impala and nod-vey's duiker
(Hoogstraal 1951.0). Blue duiker (Mettam 1932, Hoogstraal 1951+-B, Sudan record above). Forest or red duiker (Mettam 1932). Duiker
and "forest antelopes" (Rio Muni specimens noted above). Okapi (Belgian Congo specimens, I/DZ, HH identified).
Other wild animals: Water chevrotain (Bequaert 1931 and 0nders‘EepooFE coIIecE1' on). Buffalo (Nuttall and Warburton 1915,
Mettam 1932). Bushpig (apparently from Ziemann's (1905) remarks for “pigs”: Nuttall and werburteh 1915).
All the following records are for nymphs unless larvae are also noted.
Antelo s: Harnessed antelope (Nuttall and Warburton 1915). "Duike asson l9l.3B, Rousselot 1951). Harvey's duiker (Hoogstraal 19540). "Forest antelopes" (Rio Muni specimens noted above). Nymphs and larvae from bushbuck (Theiler 19450) and
from duiker (Theiler, unpublished). Larvae from "duiker" (Rio Muni specimens noted above).
Carnivores: Genet and mongoose (Hoogstraal. 19543). Domestic dog ~mcimm noted above). Civet, and larvae and nymphs from genet (Cameroons, J. Mouchet legit, HH det.).
Other mammals: Black and rufous elephant shrew, Rhinonax pgtersi, from Tanganyika (Theiler, unpublished).
Birds: La.r'va.e and n phs from forest guineafowl (Hoogstraal 1954-B; Sman record above)-1:]
Available data indicate that H. _En_!£a_. inhabits humid, for. ested regions of West Africa but that more easterly populations find optimum conditions for survival chiefly in forest and uplands. Neumann's (1913) and Lewis‘ (193lC) Kenya reports were from areas between 1000 feet and 8000 feet altitude. In Ruanda..Urundi, this tick is found up to about 5600 feet elevation (Schoenaers 1951B).
Sudan records and several others in my collections are all from altitudes above 3000 feet. In the Sudan and frequently elsewhere, these hills are more humid than the surounding plains.
The only other tick recorded from Africa that has palpal characters more or less similar to those of H. mata is H. bispinosa Neumann, 1897, an Asiatic species the is said t6 be
oun rarely on domestic animals in Kenya. Males of H. bispinosa can be distinguished by their more narrow and elongate scutum, long lateral grooves, and abrupt tapering of tarsus IV. Females of H. bis inosa have a scutal outline that is slightly longer than broag, converging cervical grooves, and a shorter, wider basis capituli. In addition, the distal tapering of tarsus IV
is more abrupt. Nuttall and Warburton (1915) recorded a few specimens of H. bis inosa from Kenya, but Lewis‘ specimens under this name are ac y _. parmata (Hoogstraal 19543).
With respect to the tapering of tarsus IV, the Noli Hills female specimen from Equatoria Province is like H. bis inosa. In all other characters, however, it appears to eqd§I E. Egrmata and it is therefore assigned to the latter species, thoug wl some hesitation. Students of Haemaphysalis ticks believe that such tarsal characters are constan wl a species, but because of the dearth of comparative material it is impossible to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion concerning this variation.
The material described by Santos Dias (l954F) from.Mozambique appears to differ somewhat from that known from the rest of Africa.
In a formidable discussion, Schulze (l938A, figure 310) has illustrated the palpi of H. parmata as data for his theories con.
cerning generic and specific 1 caters resulting from pressure of the body within the developing nymph of ticks.
Males are easily recognized by the pointed dorsal projection from the basal margin of palpal segment 3; peculiarly shaped palpi; short and broad scutum; very short cervical grooves; lateral grooves that reach only midlength of scutum; numerous, medium size, deep scutal punctations; coxae with short but distinct basal spurs, and tarsus IV gradually tapering. Palpal charac.. ters alone are enough to quickly separate pgmata. from other African species. Males are very small; they measure from 1.3 mm. to 1.8 mm. long and from 0.75 rm. to 1.1 mm. wide.
Females have the same distinctive palpal features as do males. The subcircular scutum measures from 0.64 mm. to 0.70 mm. long, and from 0.75 mm. to 0.90 mm. wide; it has broad, shallow, parallel cervical grooves extending to its midlength and medium size punctations that are more shallow than those of the male. Coxa I has a rather wide, short posterior spur but other coxal spurs are replaced by broad posterior ridges. Female palpal characters are as distinctive as those of the male among the African fauna.
Theiler (19450) has redescribed and illustrated both sexes
and the immature stages of H. armata. Dr. Theiler identified the larvae and nymphs from the forest guineafowl from the Sudan.
The genus H alomma is a complex of a few species exhibiting an almost endless variety of facies. Its original center of dispersal was probably Iran or southern Russia. Genetic instability may in part account for the wide morphological differences found in many specimens. Environmental vicissitudes are undoubtedly important additional factors in modifying size, color, and over. all appearance in this genus. These are tough, hard ticks that survive under conditions in which all other species are uncomon or entirely absent; they may even thrive in such environs. They inhabit country where humidity is frequently low, seasonal climatic conditions are extreme, favorable niches for development aay from the host are rare, smaller animals for immature_stage feeding are sparse, and larger_size hosts are frequently poorly nouished and wander widely among inhospitable situations.
Owing to their medical and economic importance and the pressing need to clarify the relationships of all presently recognized species in the genus H alomma, the plan of this section has been modified to include a key to all species and illustrations of nonSudanese species. Further research will somewhat modify present concepts but this compilation of information will provide a firmer foundation for subsequent revision than is now available without considerable background study. The presently recognized species of continental Africa are, however, fairly well stabilized and the disconcerting prospect of further nomenclatorial changes and addition of new species applies chiefly to populations from the Near East to the Far East.
of Hyalomma species have long been in a chaotic state. The thin. teen species described by Koch (1844), when he erected the genus,