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NOTE: The some twenty synonyms of H. detritum, as presented by Delpy (19498), are listed in the section on DISTRIBUTION below according to the political areas from which the specimens of each originate. It is impossible to believe that H. detritum had not been described as a species by some author somewhere prior to 1919, yet no contemporary specialist has come forth with a previous name for this species. Steps should be taken to stabilize the name H. detritum in order to prevent the futher confusion that is bound to arise when an earlier name for this tick is inevitably discovered. Special attention is called to the "biological race",

H. scupense, discussed below.

DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN

H. detritum occurs rarely in northern parts of the central Provinces of the Sudan. Additional collecting is necessary to determine its exact distribution here. It would be of some interest to know whether H. detritum has invaded the Sudan from the Red Sea coast or via.the Nile Valley.

Kassala: Port Sudan (cattle; SVS). It is not known whether hosts of these specimens were local or transient animals.

Kordofan: Four males have been collected from Kordofan gattle a e Khartoum Quarantine station (January and February) HH .

[ Khartoum: See Kordofan above 7

DISTRIBUTION

H. detritum is an Asiatic tick that ranges from Manchuria through China and India, much of southern Russia, southeastern Europe, and the Middle East; into Asia Minor, the Near East, the Mediterranean littoral of Africa westwards to Algeria; and into northcentral Sudan, where it occurs only in small, localized populations. It also occurs in Spain, probably having been introduced from northwestern Africa.

In Egypt and apparently in Libya, H. detritum is consider. ably less common than it is to the west_in Ilgeria and in Near Eastern countries. This distributional pattern is common for animal groups that have invaded North Africa from the east.

NOTE: Specimens referred to this species by Rageau (1951) from the Cameroons were later determined by him (1953) ‘as g. truncatum (= transiens).

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NORTH AFRICA: *ALG1ERIA (All as H. mauritanicum or as H. mauri cum annulatum: Senevet 1922B ,C~l92&,192%, I937. Senevet and Rossi 1921.. Sergent, Donatien, Parrot, Lesto.. quard, and Plantureux l926,1927A,B,C,D,E. Sergent, Donatien, Parrot, and Lestoquard 1928A,B,C,l931A,B,C,D,E,F,l932A,B,1933A,B, 1935A,B,1936A,B,C ,19l.5- A. Sergent 1930. Sergent and Poncet l937,l9l.0,19l.l. Sergent, Donatien, and Parrot 191.5. E. Sergent 191.8. Blanc and Brunneau 1949. d'Arces 1952. As H. detritum mauritanicum: Schulze 1930. Kratz 191.0). "

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MOROCCO (As H. mauritanicum: Desportes 1938). TUNISIA (As H. detritum; '-Senevet I959. Colas-Belcour and Rageau 1951). LIBYA (I“_"'s H. mauritanicum: Franchini l927,l929A E. Hoogstraal, ms.). EIEYFT resen ut rare: Hoogstraal, ms.)

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Note: H. mauritanicum has been reported from Somalia, without precise Ioc5'_Iity data, by Niro (1935), but this record has not been subsequently repeated by Italian workers.

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*Algerian specimens of R. mauritanicum, kindly presented by Dr. E. Sergent and Dr. Senevet, cofiorm to detritum.

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NEAR EAST: PALESTINE (All as H. detritum: Adler and Feldman Muhssm“I'9Z6'I9, 48. Feldman Muhsam 19z.81G1_. er 1952). SYRIA (As H. detritum damascenium: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. Schulze I930. Eatz I9Z0. As H. ‘Zmauritanicum: Pigoury 1937). TURKEY (As H. steineri steineri: Sc1E:ze I936D. Kratz 1940. As H. detritum: Mtmiog u . Kurtpinar 1954. Hoogstraal, ms.-' As

IN. mauritanicum: Yasarol 1951.). IRAN (As H. detritum: Delpy 936§,I9Z9B). '

EUROPE: *BULGARIA (As 3. scu nse and as _1_i. detritum _gs_i-. danicum: Pavlov 1947). *YUGO s either _I_{. scu nse or H. SBNIEI by different local workers according to Oswgld 1937.

As _. scu nse and H. detritum dardanicum: Oswald l937,l938A,
B,C,l939I,§,I940. As _H. detritum: Higelovsky 1954).

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GREEDE (As H. scu nse: Knuth, Behn, and Schulze 1918. Schulze 1919,1930. Sfize and Schlottke 1930. Kratz 1940.

Pandazis 1947. As _I_I. detrituin scu ense: Delpy 1946. As _I_I. detritum dardanicum: ~m__S-m_d c ottke 1930. Schulze

I950. Kratz I9Z0. Pandazis 1947).

SPAIN (As steineri codinai: Schulze l936D. Kratz 191.0. As I_i. mauritanicum: G1'I 00113.35-I948A. Miranda.Entrenas 1951+).

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RUSSIA: As H. detritum: Olenev l929B,193lA. Pavlovsky 1940. Kurchatov I941. Pavlovslqr, Galuzo, and Lototsky 1941. Galuzo 1941,1943 ,l9l.4. Lototsky and Pokrovsky 1946. Tselish. cheva 1953. Viazkova and Bernadskaia 1954. Petrisheva 1955. Zhmaeva, Pchellcina, Mishchenko, and Karulin 1955.

As I_{. detritum detritum: Olenev l929A,l931C. Schulze and Schlottke 1950. §hfize I930.

As LI. detritum rubrum: Schulze 1930. Olenev 1931A,C,l931+. Pomerantzev I9'3Z. Gauze 1935. Galuzo and Bespalov 1935. Kratz 1940.

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*The hosts of immature stages listed by authors in these countries indicate that they are quite possibly dealing with a different species of tick.

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As I_{. transcaucasicum: Olenev 1934 (the synonymy of this name appears E3 have Been overlooked by subsequent workers).

As both H. detritum and H. scu nse: Pomerantzev 1937. Pomerantzev, Fiatifishvily, and Lo 0 s 1940. Markov, Gilden.. blat, Kurchatov, and Petunin 1948. Note; Pomerantzev 1950, in his work on Soviet ticks, considers these two as distinct species. See BIOLGEY and IDENTIFICA.'1‘ION below.

As H. scu nse: Olenev 1934. Nikolsky 1948. Petunin 1948. Pomerant'Eev . 'Alfeev 1951. Shatas 1952. Melnikova_l953. Rementsova 1953. Shatas and Bustrova 1954. Note: Pomerantzev 1950 considers H. vol ense and H. uralense to E synonyms of H. scu nse, while"DeIpy places them under either H. detritum orH. excavatum (see two paragraphs below). Note the raerences to ‘H. scugnse" in the section on European distribution above. See 3150 paragraph above and below.

H. verae Olenev, 1931B, is also placed in synonynv under H. scu nse 557 Fomerantzev 1950; Delpy did not consider H. verae in his E' ‘E

1.5 of synonyms.

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as H. vol ense and/or H. uralense: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. §huI_gT93'0ze . 01.8116?! 1'929ITI§31.a,c,1934. Zasukhin 1932, 1935. Borzenkov and Donsloov 1934. Zolotarev 1934. Galuzo 1935. Kochetleov 1935. Artjukh 1936. Kurchatov 194013. Markov, Abramov, and Dzasokhov 1940. Enigk 1947. See paragraph on scugse above and paragraph below.

Delpy (1949B) was not certain whether H. uralense Schulze and Schlottke, 1930, and H. vol ense Schulze and ~, 1930, are synonyms of H. detritum or of H. excavatum, and stated that Russian workers may have Included bOthSp6Cl|8S under these two names.

In Schulze's collection, now in Rocky Mountain Laboratory, there are 236" and 2199 from Ukrainia, identified by Schulze as H. volgense. These are typical H. detritum. The same institution possesses and 399 from Crimea, dete$ned by Schulze first as H. ?marginatum, and later crossed out and identified by him as _I_i.

uralense. The males are, all but one, H. detritum*; the exception

appears to be H. mar inatum; the females are in poor condition. It is reasonable to assume that what is now considered to be H. detri

:ol1_m (or, in part, “H. scu nse") was treated by Schulze inpa'.FE as uralense and in parg as H. vol ense, though, he overlooked other species in the same collection Efi referred to them by the

S8318 1181118.

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As H. tunesiacum ?vlovs$: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. Described and 1' Ilustra e as _. detritum Evlovsgi by Kratz 191.0.

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According to Galuzo 1935, the H. asiaticum of Olenev is H. detritum (= H. detritum. rubrum). a.si'ati'cu.m is usually con. sidered as a synonym of _H. dromedarii.

MIDDLE EAST: INDIA (As H. ae tium ferozedini and as H. a. isaaci: arif 1928. As H. shargfiz Schmke and Schlottke Iezbfif. chulze and Gossel 1933. _"'t_xra Z 1940. As H. isaaci: Kratz 191.0). PGRTUGESE INDIA (As 51. detritum: s'am*f>"‘<>s ias 1954.1).

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FAR EAST: CHINA including MONGOLIA (As detritum albiictum: §hulze 1919,1930. Schulze and Schlottfie I930. lama

s a 1939. Kratz 191.0. As H. detritum erstri atum: Schulze 1930. Schulze and Schlottke I930. Hoeppgi and éieng 1933.

Olenev 1934. Kratz 1940).

HOSTS

Domestic cattle and horses are the most common hosts of H. detritum, all stages of which feed on the same kind of animal. Sheep and goats are sometimes attacked. For the Soviet Union, Pomerantzev (1950) lists cattle, horses, donkeys, pigs, camels, sheep, and hares; and, for nymphs, especially cattle and horses. Man is apparentl commonly attacked under local conditions.

Oswald's (1939 and Pavlov's (1947) remarks for parasitism by imature stages in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria of various birds and

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*At the time of checking this material, I did not realize the

significance of "H. scu nse". It cannot, therefore, be said that these specimens HIE not resemble the latter form.

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