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*Ornamentation is often not extensive in the elephant tick, A. tholloni. Ornamentation may be more or less faded in poorly preserved specimens.

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On the following pages all available EQUATORIA PROVINCE RECORDS for each species are listed according to numbers of specimens of each stage and sex, locality within the Province, host, and month of collection. The mammalian hosts are described by Setzer (1956B) in his ''Mammals of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan'". Domestic animals and wild birds or reptiles are listed following wild mammals, Where human beings have served as hosts, the records precede those from animals. Different collections from one kind of host are listed geographically from east to west.

If two or more collections have been made from a single kind of host in the same locality during one month, the data have been col lated on one line and the number of collections noted in parentheses immediately following the month. The number of collections are statistically unreliable since they may refer to one day's collection or to a collection from one herd of domestic animals. However, every collection from a single wild animal host is considered as a single collection.

It will be noted that most specimens were taken during the dry season, November to April. This has no significance except to indi. cate that much of my tick collecting in Equatoria Province was accomplished during this season, Most Sudan material presented by other persons has also been gathered during this period when travel is easier and most officials have returned from home leave.

The great bulk of records in the Equatoria Province section are from my collection and are not otherwise noted. Any data from other sources are indicated by initials in parentheses following the month of collection: (svs) for Sudan Veterinary Service, (scc) for Sudan Government Collections, (BMNH) for British Museum (Natural History),

or (CNAM) for Chicago Natural History Museum collections. Since King's (1926) review, only two literature references for ticks from definite localities in Equatoria Province have been published and these have been noted, following the month of collection, in the usual literature reference manner.

Most Equatoria Province collecting localities may be located in Figure 317. Common names of hosts may be found in Chapter V. The situation of a few of King's early collecting localities can not now be definitely ascertained, but they aro all close to the present Uganda border.

Reasons for special reference to Equatoria Province are several. My Sudan collection is largely from this Province, and it is from here that most of the new data presented in this report have been obtained. Also, Equatoria Province represents the northern limits of a number of truly tropical African species. Of these, a few un doubtedly range into Babr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Provinces, though they are not yet recorded from these areas.

Ticks now known from the Sudan number 62 identifiable species plus two additional subspecies. Of this total of 64 identifiable forms, 52 occur in Equatoria Province. Twenty-five are presently recorded only from Equatoria Province and five are known only from Bahr El Ghazal Province. Two uncertain forms are also listed.


Under DISTRIBUTION IN SUDAN all known collecting localities have been listed for each species by Province, with the exception of course, of Equatoria Province, which is separately considered. Besides my own collections, the chief source of this information has been the collections of the Sudan Government, for which H. H. King, R. Cottam, W. Ruttledge, D. J. Lewis, and a few other persons have been largely responsible.

Specimens submitted to me for identification by the Sudan Vet erinary Service have been important for data on species parasitizing domestic animals. British Museum (Natural History) collections have contributed additional information for areas outside of Equatoria Province, Almost no other Sudan data have appeared in literature, except for a few papers by King, one or two by Ruttledge, and brief notes by Balfour and a few other persons.


Under the heading, DISTRIBUTION, all available pertinent lit erature records for each political territory of Africa have been listed. I have attempted to select critically each reference for accuracy of species identification and to include only references based on actually known specimens in relation to distribution, disease, control, biology, availability for taxonomic study, etc. Authoritative taxonomists lists have been included especially where localities are involved and where questions of species iden tity in any territory exist. Also noted are references by experi. mental workers who have indicated the source of their material; biological variations within populations presently considered as identical species may subsequently prove to be of the utmost im portance in evaluating results of laboratory experiments.

While I personally am concerned with these data in the interests of geomedical knowledge, it is intended that these lists should be a useful guide to interested persons in the territories concerned. Otherwise, this listing is chiefly for advanced, specialized stu dents with some knowledge of the literature, who should be able, by consulting the reference titles in the bibliography, to locate subjects of interest. After serious consideration, it is felt that further breakdown of these references into subject groups would be too unwieldy and cumbersome.

Maps showing tick distribution in Africa will be presented in subsequent volumes of this work.

Every attempt has been made to provide as complete a list of useful references as possible. Probably, all really important works have been seen and noted but if any has been missed it will be much appreciated if readers will call my attention to it.


The object of the HOSTS section has been to indicate the chief references to kinds of animals on which each species feed in each life stage and to give a brief statement concerning the preferred host or hosts. The references following each host do not necessarily include all reports in which the animal has been mentioned. Further

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