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NEAR EAST: PALESTINE (AS H. anatolicumg Bodenheimer 1937. Kratz IQC. As H. rhi ice haloides Neumann 1901,1911. Schulze 1921,1936F. Kratz s . savi 1. Bodenheimer 1937. Adler and Feldman..Muhsam l94€l~ e dman..Muhsam 1947,1948, 1949 ,l950,l951A. As H. excavatum; Feldman..Muhsam 1954. As H. tunesiacum: Bodenheimer I957) . '

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smm and LEBANON (Hoogstraal, ms.). IRAQ (As H. ae tium meso tamium: Schulze 1919. Schulze and Schlottke l93U"a£_T. s . savi I meso tami : Kratz 191.0. As H. excavatum: HubbardI955. Hoogst¥&, ms.). "ARABIA" (As H: iIIum: Schulze 1919). TRUCIAL (mm, mm, ADEN, saunl ~oo straal,

mss.). IRAN (Delpy 1946B ,l94% .1952). AFGHANISTAN Anastos 1954. Hoogstraal, ms.).

TURKEY (As H. i11us: Vogel 1927. As H. excavatum: Kurtpinar 1954. -Mi§ogIu 1954. One of the mo§t common ticks on the Anatolian steppes: Hoogstraal, ms. As lusitanicumz Yasarol 1954).

CYPRUS The H. savi i exsul of Schulze and Schlottke (1930), attr buted_by py 197595‘) to H. marginatum (= g. savi i of Delpy), appears rather to b'é . excava um; see pp. 5;k535 of Kratz (1940)_7.

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EUROPE: PORTUGAL (As H. lusitanicum: Koch 1841.. Schulze 1919. 5852 1940).

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SPAIN (As 11. degessuuu Schulze 1919. Gil Collado 191.81. As H. excavatum: De Pr a, Gay, and Llorente 1950. De Prada, Gil CoIIado, and Mingo Alsina 1951. As H. lusitanicumz Gil Collado l936,19l.8A. Kratz 191.0. As H. 1usTt_'_“"5.’1euicuu ericum: Jordano Barea 1951. NOTE: H. deEes§um is considera 5 Be a synonym of H. excavatum, but the species called H. de ressum by Gil Co1_l'5.do I9Z3I is one that cannot readily be e ermlned).

FRANCE (As H. excavatum: Brumpt and Chabaud 1947. Brumpt 1949. Buttner 1949. CoIas..Be1cour and Rageau 1951. Chabaud and Choquet 1953). ITALY (As H. lusitanicum: Schulze 1936c. , Tone1li..Rondel1i 1938. Kratz I94~ (As H. anatolicum: Kratz 191.0. Enigk 191.7. Pendazis 191.7).

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RUSSIA: As H. anatolicmn: Pomerantzev, Matikashvily, and Lototsky 1940. Galuzo 19E. Blagoveshchensky and Serdyukova 1946. Lototsky and Polcrovsky 1946. Pervomaisky 1954. Pav_

lovsky, Pervomaisky, and Chagin 1954. Viazkova and Bernadskaia 1954. Gajdusek 1956.

As H. a.nato1icum anatolicumz Serdyukova l946A,B. Markov, Gildenblat, urc ov, and Petunin 1948. Pomerantzev 1950.

Pervomaislcy 1950A. Gajdusek 1953. Tselishcheva 1953.

As H. anatolicum excavatum: Serdyukova 1941. Pervomaisky 1949,1950!" omeran zev I950. Petrisheheva 1955.

As H. amurense: Olenev 193lA,C.

As H. asiaticum caucasicum: Pomerantzev, Matikashvily,

and Lotots~

As H. excavatum: Blagoveshchensky and Serdyukova 1946. Zhmaeva, Pchegna, Mishchenko, and Karulin 1955.

As turkmeniense: Olenev l931A,C. Kornienko-Koneva and Shmulreva 1~v, Petrova, and Sondak 1945. Pomerantzev 1946. Markov, Gildenblat, Kurchatov, and Petunin 1948. As H. tunisiacum turkmeniense: Kratz 1940. Delpy (1949B) considered H. turkmeniense as questionably a synonym of H. excavatum; Fomerantzev (I950) synonymizes it under H. excavatum (= H.

anatolicum) . '

{?As H. savi armeniorum: Olenev 1929A. Schulze and Schlo tke 1930. Iogoésfi and Fopov 1934. As H. armeniorum: Kratz 1940_._7

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a{?As 5. sav-.1§;5'= Zolotarev 1931.. Galuzo 1935,19z.1,191.z.. Bern skaia 19 , . Pavlovsky 1940. Zotova and Bolditzina

1943. Galuzo, Bolditzina, and Kaitmazova 1944. For a discussion of Delpy's remarks concernin Soviet confusion between H.

excavatmn and H. marginatum = H. saviayi) see page 47'0._7

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As H. rhipicephaloides: Yakimov 1922,1923. Olenev 1929B.

MIDm.|E EAST: INDIA [18 H. kumari: 'Sharif (l928,l930). Delpy (E195) considers H. kumari as a synonym of H. excavatum, but it seems best to res'5rv§E'g'ement on this mat'ter_f'51'_'E$ moment. Numerous specimens typical. of H. excavatum are present in H4NH collections, H.H. det. As H. s'Evi'fi;__D_asgupta (1955) and Dasgupta and Ray (1955); the possibilléy that these refer to

H. mar inatum should be considers . PORTUGESE INDIA (Santos ‘flies lé5ZJ ) . g

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HOSTS

H. excavatum is a parasite of cattle, horses, donkeys, camels, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and swine. It also attacks man and dogs. Hares appear to be especially important wild hosts.

Nymphs are variable in occurrence on cattle, but nymphs and larvae are often found on calves. Nymphs and larvae frequently attack rodents, and normally do so on the desert. They also feed on man, hares, lizards, and birds.

All stages of H. excavatum have been observed feeding on hares in a forest near Casablanca where other wild and domestic animals are absent (Blanc and Bruneau l953,1954,l955). In Ana. tolia, numerous adults have been reared from nymphs taken from hares (Hoogstraal, ms.). A larva has been reported from a here in Iraq (Hubbard 1955). In Yemen these animals are heavily infested by immature stages (Hoogstraal, ms.). British Museum (Natural History) collections contain specimens from Indian hares

Nuttall lot 31.23; 11.11. det.). Wherever hares and H. excavatum occur together the association appears to be an important one.

The complete absence of any specimens of H. excavatum on more than five htmdred hedgeho s collected tm3@~t, is noteworthy (Hoogstraal, Hedgehogs were, however, used as laboratory hosts of immature stages by Fe1dman..Muhsam (191.8).

Delpy (191.90) considers birds, especially nestlings, important hosts of nymphs. A male in British Museum (Natural History)

collections has been reared from a redstart, 2. pt_11oenicurus (= Ruticilla uvenicurus) at Amara on the Tigris ver uttaJ.1 lot 32x5; H. . e . .

Single instances of attack of human beings have been reported from France (Buttner 1949) and Iraq (Hubbard 1955; whether actu.a_'L.. ly feeding not stated). During field work for the present study, feeding specimens of H. excavatmn have been taken from personnel in Egypt, Turkey, and-Yemen (Hoogstraal, ms.). In Uzbekistan, this tick (= 11. anatolicum) often attaches to man (Gajdusek 1953).

Apparently the only larger wild animals yet recorded as hosts of the adult stage are gazelles in French Somaliland (Hoogstraal 195321).

Biological observations in Egypt thus far have been confined to searching for naturally infested wild animals in the field, keeping them alive in the laboratory, and allowing ticks that drop from them to molt to the next stage. Adults reared from nymphs taken from wild animals have been from the following hosts:

Lizard Acanthodactylus boskianus (fairly common)

Lesser Egyptian gerbil er 1 us 5. erbillus (common)
Greater Egyptian gerbil §er5iIIus B. ¥ami'dum (common)

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Fat sandrat 'Fsa.mmo 's o. o esus éfairly common)
Sundevall's jird Meriones ct crassus fairly common)
Shaw's jird fleriones 5. shawl (fairly common)
Spiny nouse Ice s spp. (uncommon)
Lesser Egyptian jerboa Jac%us 1. 'aculus (uncommon)
Hares fleas CSEHSIS su spp. (common)

Colas..Belcour and Rageau (1951) report adults in Tunisia from burrows of gerbils, jirds, and fat sandrats and nymphs from jirds. They also found 11. excavatum in burrows and on other rodents in France. Adults of H. excavatmn in rodent burrows are always newly molted, remaining there Before they venture forth to seek a larger host (Hoogstraal, ms.). There is no evidence to consider gerbils as common hosts of adults, as stated on the map of the American Geographical Society (1954); see also Erratum sheet).

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The several investigators who have reared H. excavatum in the laboratory (Delpy 1952 in Iran; Daubney and Said l§§I in' Egypt;

Feldman;Muhsam 1948 in Palestine; Brum and Chabaud 1947 in France, and Serdyukova 1946A in Russia confirm that this is normally a thee_host s ecies. In Tadzhikistan, however, Lotot_ sky and Pokrovsky (1946 consider H. excavatum (: H. anatolicu) to be a two_host tick. Fahhmwnkuhsam ohserved that some larvae may remain on the host through the nymphal stage, but Delpy (191.60) stated that 11‘ they do so, they first detach and wander away, for example to the ear, and reattach only after molting. Daubey and Said observed a single larva molting while still attached. On desert rodents in Egypt nymphal H. excavatum have on several occasions been found attached to the host and par. tially enclosed by the larval exuvia. Possibly in these situations, where hosts are scarce, the typical life cycle is more commonly somewhat altered. On Egyptian deserts, the molt from nymphal to adult stage typically occurs in rodent burrows. Remarks that desert rodents dislodge most ticks attached to them by rubbing, shaking, or eating are contrary to frequent expeience

111 Egypt

The effect of a small size host on the life cycle of H. excavatum has perhaps best been described by Serdyukova (I§46A, as H anatolicum) (from abstract in Review of Applied Entomology):

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“Larvae from a single egg_batch engorged on a
rabbit, which is an unusual host for this tick. Some
detached after engorgement, others molted on the ani_
mal. Some of the resulting nymphs wandered on the
rabbit without feeding but others engorged and then
dropped off. Larvae placed on the ears of a calf all
detached after engorging, and no engorged or molting
larvae or larval exuvia were observed on calves in
the field. Ticks collected in a calf shed included
freshly engorged and molting larvae and unfed nymphs.
It is concluded, therefore, that H. excavatum (= H.
anatolicum) develops as a three_h5st tick on its _
normal host, but that an unusual host may alter this
behavior. The cycle of ixodid development has prob.
ably altered as a result of evolutionary processes.
The type of development that occurs on the usual
host should be considered as normal, and deviations
from it on unusual hosts as atavistic.'

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