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Bahr En Ghazal: GalualNyang Forest (Very common on buffalos and giraffes; svs, HH. The absence of this tick on the numerous tiang examined in this area is notable). Aliab (buffalos; svs), Lau (cc). Lake Nyubor, Boro, Khor Shammam, and near Raga (svs). Yirol (horses; svs).

Bor, Ler, and Fangak (svs). Malakal (HH).

Blue Nile: Common at Wad Medani (HH). Abu Zor, Hosh, near Ethiopian border, and Lake Ras Amer (camels and cattle; SGC).

Kordof an: *Western Jebels and Umm Inderaba (SVS).

Darfur: Nyala, Zalingei, Radom, Sibdo, Muhagariya, and Sahaf a common on camels, cattle, sheep, and horses; svś).

Kassala:

Kassala (camels and cattle; svs). Port Sudan (SVS).

Khartoum: Khartoum: Numerous specimens have been collected from sheep, goats, and horses, but few from cattle (HH). At the Khartoum quarantine station many adults are found on Darfur and Kordofan cattle. The Sudan Government collection contains a series of adults reared from nymphs from a kite, Milvus migrans, by H.H. King, 20 September 1922.

Northern: Shendi (camels and donkey; SVS). Wadi Half a (camels; SGC, HH).

DISTRIBUTION

H. rufipes is widely distributed in many drier parts of Africa but it is quite localized and seldom very common in any locality. The hairy hyalomma is not known from many of the more westerly areas of Africa. It is present in the Yemen (Southwestern Arabia); and in North Africa occurs in Egypt and Libya but is not known further west on the Mediterranean littoral.

Elsewhere, H. rufipes occurs in Palestine, Iraq, Eastern Ana tolia, and Russia (Transcaucasia, Astrakhan, Kazakhstan). Soviet workers find H. rufipes in such small numbers and in such scattered

localities that Pomerantzev (1950) believes its presence in Russia is due to small local populations established from nymphs from migrating birds. Schulze (1918) reported a Macedonian specimen (as H. impressum) that may have been imported on a bird.

This distributional picture is indeed unique, and it may be surmised that H. rufipes is a species of the Ethiopian Faunal Re gion that has extended its range beyond these confines as a result of transportation by migrating birds, which are important hosts of immature stages (page 486).

Note: All records below are for H. rufipes or H. r. rufipes; other combinations are so stated.

NORTH AFRICA: EGYPT (Common on domestic animals in the Nile Valley only; also arrives at the Cairo abattoir on cattle from the Sud an and East Africa: Hoogstraal, ms. See immature HOSTS below). LIBYA (Scattered populations on Mediterranean littoral: Hoogstraal, ms.).

WEST AFRICA: NIGERIA (As H. impressum rufipes: Unsworth 1949,1952. As H. impressum subsp.: Gambles 1951. As H. rufipes: Theiler 1956. Material from Katagum and Oban in BMNH collections; H.H. det.). FRENCH WEST AFRICA (As H. savignyi impressa: Girard and Rousselot 1945. Rousselot 1946. ?As H. rufipes glabrum: Rousselot 1951 and Villiers 1955; it is assumed that these do not actually refer to H. turanicum. Rousselot 1953B. Theiler 1956).

CENTRAL AFRICA: FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA (Rousselot 1953B). BELGIAN CONGO (Rare: Theiler and Robinson 1954. Theiler 1956).

EAST AFRICA: Theiler 1956).

SUDAN (Hoogstraal 1954B. Feldman_Muhsam 1954.

ETHIOPIA (As H. aegyptium impressum f. typica: Stella 1939A, B,1940. As H. rufipes: Theiler 1956). ERITREA (As H. impressum impressum: Tonelli Rondelli 1930A. As H. impressum rufipes: Niro 1935. Numerous specimens in BMNH and HH collections). FRENCH SOMALILAND (Hoogstraal 1953D). BRITISH SOMALILAND (As

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H. grossum; Pocock 1900.

Pocock 1900. As H. aegyptium impressum: Stella 1938A,19394. Numerous specimens From camels in EMNH collections; H.H. det.). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (As H. aegyptium impressum: Paoli 1916. Tonelll Rondelli 19260. Franchini 1929C. Niro 1935. Stella 1938A, 1940. As H. impressum. rufipes: TonelliRondelli 1935. Stella 1940. Specimens in BMNH and HH collections. See NOTE under EAST AFRICA for H. impressum, p. 463).

KENYA [ Materials identified and variously reported by E. A. Lewis as H. aegyptium impressum, H. impressum albiparmatum, or H. rufipes are almost invariably a mixture of H. truncatum and H. rutipes; sometimes H. impeltatum and H. albiparmatum are included under these names in Lewis collections now in the British Museum (Natural History) (H.H. det.). As H. rufipes: Binns (1951,1952). Theiler (1956). Note: In addition to the probability of mixed species in reports by Lewis, the synonymy of the following names is uncertain. As H. aegyptium: Brassey Edwards (1932).

As H. impressum: Daubney (1936). As H. imoressum rufipes: Daubney (1937).

UGANDA (Wilson 1953. Theiler 1956. See HOSTS below). TANGA NYIKA (As H. aegyptium impressum: Cornell 1936.

Cornell 1936As H. rufipes: Theiler 1956. See HOSTS below).

SOUTHERN AFRICA: *SOUTH AFRICA" (Koch 1844. As H. impressum rufipes: Schulze and Schlottke 1930).

[ ANGOLA: Absent: Sousa Dias (1950). Theiler (1956).7 NORTHERN RHODESIA Matthysse 1954. Theiler and Robinson 1954. Theiler 1956). SOUTHERN RHODESIA (As H. aegyptium impressum: Jack 1921, 1928,1937,1942. As H. rifipes: Theiler 1956). NYASALAND (No available records). MOZAMBIQUE (As H. impressum rufipes: Theiler 1943B. Santos Dias 1952D,1953A, 1954H. Tendeiro 1955. As H. rufipes: Theiler 1956). BECHUANALAND (Specimens from Ghanzi in MNH collections; H.H. det. Theiler 1956). SWAZILAND (Uncommon: Theiler 1956). SOUTHWEST AFRICA (As H. impressum rufipes: Schulze 1936A. As H. impressum: Schulze 1940. As H. rufipes: Theiler 1956. See HOSTS below).

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (The H. aegyptium of Dönitz 1910B and of Cooley 1934 apparently includes both H. truncatum and

H. rufipes. As H. aegyptium impressum: Howard 1908. Bedford 1932B, 1934,1936. Alexander, Mason, and Neitz 1939. McIntyre 1939. du Toit 1942,1947. du Toit and Monnig 1942. As H. aegyptium: Clark 1933. As H. impressum rufipes: Theiler 1943B. As H. rufipes: Thorburn 1952. Neitz 1954. Theiler 1956).

ISLAND GROUPS: MADAGASCAR (Hoogstraal 1953E. Theiler 1956). COMORES (Kratz 1920; cf. immature HOSTS below).

NEAR EAST: TURKEY (Rare in eastern Anatolia: Hoogstraal, ms.). PALESTINE (AS H. impressum, rare: Bodenheimer 1937. Adler and Feldman Muhsam 1976,1948. YEMEN and IRAQ (Common: Hoogstraal, ms.).

RUSSIA: (As H. aequi primctatum: Olenev 19311,C. Galuzo and Bespalov 1935. As H. impressum: Pomerantzev, Matikashvily, and Lototsky 1940. As H. marginatum impressum: Pomerantzev 1946. Tselishcheva 1953. “As H. plumbeum impressum: Pomerantzev 1950).

NOTE: The record of H. impressum rufipes from China (chod. ziesner 1924) probably refers to a heavily punctate H. marginatum (Kratz 1940). H. rufipes has been stated to occur in Portugal by Kaplan and Hulsē (1953) in their review of prevalence of Q fever in Europe; this apparent error derives from the report by Fonesca, Pinto, Colacao, Oliveira, Branco, da Gama, Franco, and Lacerda (1951) that "h. rufipes glabrumal is associated with Q fever there. This is assumed to refer to H. marginatum.

HOSTS

Domestic cattle appear to be the most common hosts of this tick. They are mentioned by practically every author and are the most frequent hosts of specimens in museum collections. Other common domestic hosts are horses, sheep, and goats. Bedford (1932B) states that dogs and cats are also infested; specimens from these hosts are present in British Museum (Natural History) and HH collections. In semidesert areas, camels are frequently parasitized (Sudan records; HH mss.; numerous Somaliland specimens in BMNH collections; Hoogstraal 1953D). Among wild ani. mals, the buffalo and giraffe are common hosts, as is the rhinoceros. Antelopes and certain birds are less common hosts

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of adults, and a variety of small mammals are occasionally in fested.

Immature stages feed on a large variety of birds and also on hares.

Adults

Domestic animals: See two paragraphs above.

Man: Howard (1908). Bedford (1932B). J. B. Walker (correspondence; o tick from Tanganyika).

Wild animals: Rhinoceros (Two collections in BMNH from Kenya). Butfalo (Santos Dias 1952D,1953B. Onderstepoort col lection from Northern Rhodesia. BMNH collection from Kenya, Sudan records above). Eland (Schulze 1936A.

Eland (Schulze 1936A. Two collections in BMNH from Southwest Africa, HH collection from Tanganyika. Onderstepoort collection from South Africa and Tanganyika). Bushbuck (MCZ collection from Tanganyika). Duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi) (Bedford 1932B). Sable antelope (Santos Dias 1953A). Gemsbok (Onderstepoort collection from Southwest Africa). Giraffe (Santos Dias 1952D,1953B. Onderstepoort collection from northern Kenya and Southwest Africa. Sudan records above). Jackal (Canis mesomelas schmidti) (Stella 1939B). Zebra (Santos Dias 1952D. BNH collection from Tanganyika). Hare (Howard 1908. Onderstepoort collection from South Africa).

*Fowls" (Howard 1908). Ostrich (Howard 1908. Bedford 1932B. of in HH collection, from "west of Afmadu, Somalia, 1952, Col. D. Davis legit). Guinea fowl (Santos Dias 1953B).

Adults from the following birds are present in the Onderste poort collection (Theiler, correspondence): ostrich (Southwest Africa), swallow (Southern Rhodesia), Cape dikkop (Burhinops c. capensis from South Africa), and mocking chat (Thamolaea c. cinnamomeiventris from South Africa).

Immature Stages

Hosts of the immature stages noted by Bedford (1932B,1936) are not listed here since it is questionable that larvae and nymphs

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