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H. rufi s. As H. ae tium im essum: Howard 1908. Bedford l%~,1936._ Alexander, Hason, and Neitz 1939. McIntyre 1939. du Toit 1942,1947. du Toit and Monnig 1942. As H.
ae tium: Clark 1933. As H. essum rufi s: Theiler 19438. As E. rufifisz Thorbm'n 1952. e z . eiler 1956).
ISLAND GROUPS: wmacascm (Hoogstraal 1953a. Theiler 1956). CQJICREH (Eatz IZO; cf. immature HOSTS below).
NEAR FJXSI‘: TURKEK (Here in eastern Anatolia: Hoogstraal, m.). P~H. im essmn, rare: Bodenheimer 1937. Adler and Fe1c)1man.Muhsa.m 19~ YFMDI and IRAQ (Common: Hoogstraal,
RUSSIA: (As H. aequiggtatumz Olenev 193u,c. Galuzo and Bespalov I935. As-I-I. IUIEPBSSUID: Pomerantzev, Matikashvily, and Lototsky 1940. As H. mar inatum impressum: Pomerantzev 1946. Tselishcheva 1953. _As H. plumbeum impressum: Pomerantzev 1950).
NOTE: The record of H. imEessum rufipes from China (Chod.
ziesner I924) probably refers o a eavi y punctate H. mar inatum (Kratz 1940). H. rufi s has been stated to occur in Portug§I 5;
Kaplan and Hulse in their review of prevalence of Q fever in Europe; this apparent error derives from the report by Fonesca, Pinto Colacao, Oliveira, Branco, da Ganm, Franco, and Lacerda (1951) that "H. rufi s labrxmf is associated with Q fever there. This is assumed to reger o _. natum.
Domestic cattle appear to be the most common hosts of this tick. They are mentioned by practically every author and are the most frequent hosts of specimens in museum collections. Other common domestic hosts are horses, sheep, and goats. Bedford (l932B) states that dogs and cats are also infested; specimens from these hosts are present in British Museum (Natural History) and HH collections. In semidesert areas, camels are frequently parasitized (Sudan records; HH mss.; numerous Somaliland spec. imens in HWNH collections; Hoogstraal 19531)). Among wild ani.. mals, the buffalo and giraffe are common hosts, as is the rhinoceros. Antelopes and certain birds are less common hosts
of adults, and a variety of small mammals are occasionally in.. fested.
Immature stages feed on a large variety of birds and also on hares.
Domestic animls: See two paragraphs above.
Man: Howard (1908). Bedford (193213). J. B. Walker (correspoflence; Q tick fmm Tanganyika).
Wild animals: Rhinoceros (Two collections in H/[NH from Kenya). B'1_1.ffIo_(Santos Dias l952D,1953B. Onderstepoort col. lection from Northern Rhodesia. HINH collection from Kenya, Sudan records above). Eland (Schulze 1936A. Two collections in BINH from Southwest Africa. HH collection from Tangan 'ka. Onderstepoort collection from South Africa and Tanganyika . Bushbuck (MCZ collection from Tanganyika). Duiker'( lvica a
innni) ‘Bedford 193212). Sable antelope (Santos Di~ . EmsEk Onderstepoort collection from Southwest Africa) . Giraffe (Santos Dias l95ZD,1953B. Onderstepoort collection from northern Kenya and Southwest Africa. Sudan records above). Jackal (Canis mesomelas schmidti) (Stella 1939B). Zebra (Santos Dias 195$. ~t1' on Frbm Tanganyika). Hare (Howard 1908. Onderstepoort collection from South Africa) .
“Fowls” (Howard 1908). Ostrich (Howard 1908. Bedford 19323. a in n‘IT'E6Ileer.ien, from ‘west of Afmadu", Somalia, 1952, Col. 1). Davis legit). Guinea fowl (Santos Dias 195312).
Adults from the following birds are esent in the 0nderste.. poort collection (Theiler, correspondence)nr ostrich (Southwest Africa), swallow (Southern Rhodesia), Cape dikkop (Burhinops 2. caEnsis from South Africa), and mocking chat (Thamno aea 2. clnnamomeiventris from South Africa) .
Hosts of the immature stages noted by Bedford (19328 ,l936) are not listed here since it is questionable that larvae and nymphs
of H. rufi es and of H. truncatum (= _I_i. transiens) could be dif.. ferentiateg at that time. Nymphs have been reported from a bare (Alexander, Mason, and Neitz 1939), and from a kite (Sudan records above); the former workers induced five of the twelve nymphs to reattach to a guinea pig.
Kratz (1940) records the finding of a nymph, which molted into a male rufi s, on a female comorant caught on the high seas between the nortgern trip of Madagascar and the Comores Archipelago.
The Onderstepoort collection (Theiler, correspondence) has 1arva.e (L) and/or nymphs (N) from the following South African birds:
N Namaqua thrush, Afrocichla smithi
N White..throated seed:eate¥, r t agra a. albog%aris
Red.winged st~ £1. mor1o
Boubou shrike, Lan arius _f. ferrugineus
Fiscal flycafiher, Si elus silens
Cape barn owl, Ty‘t_o aiba 1 s
The same collection contains nymphs from a hare and a rock hare (Pronolagg randensis) in South Africa and from a hare in Uganda.
In Egypt, nymphs (reared to adults in the laboratory) have been found only on birds (Hoogstraal, ms.) although adults are locally common on domestic animals. The hosts have been:
Wheatear (European form), Oenanthe 2. oenanthe
The former bird breeds throughout most of Europe east to Central and northern Asia and to northern Alaska; it winters in Arabia and tropical Africa, also in Asia to India. The latter ‘breeds in the Crimea, Bulgaria, and almost throughout the Balkan peninsula, Asia Minor, Palestine, and western Persia, etc.; winters in Egypt and Sinai to the Sudan, Ethiopia, the Red Sea coast, and has straggled
to the southern Sahara, British Islands, Malta, and northwest Africa‘ Qfieinertzagen 1930). Possibilities for the wide dis. persal of this tick are easily recognized.
Under laboratory conditions, H. rufi s is a two host tick although it possibly may also undergo a tE¥ee host type of life cycle. Theiler (l943B and 1955 correspondence) has summarized the developmental stages as follows:
Preoviposition .4 to 12 4 t9 19
Larva feeds 5 to 7
Premolting period 2 to 15
Nymphal prefeeding period ?
Nymph feeds 7 to l0
(Larvae and nymphs on host) 13 to 45 average l4
Adult (female) feeds 5 to 6 5 to 12
It appears that the minimum time for completing the life cycle is between four and five months but double this period may be re. quired under local conditions.
“The life cycle of H. as tiu 6: 7H. rufipgs, possibly mixed with H. truncatum: HH) is 0 par 1cular'value in that it illus. trates the Influence of vermin in the distribution of the species. On sheep, cattle, and domestic fowl it behaves as a three host tick, requiring a separate host for the larval, nymphal, and adult stages. On the hare, §. ae tium will feed as a larva, become mymw,mhasawmhufiwtbwmgmemm,fiwasa
nymph on the same individual host, and then drop off the host for molting. Thus on the hare the life cycle requires only two hosts“ (Brassey_Edwards 1932). This interesting phenomenon should be re. investigated.
The long oviposition period is especially noteworthy. Unfed larvae may survive a year, unfed nymphs three months, and unfed adults for longer than a year (Theiler 1943B). Enigk (1953) ob. served unfed adults surviving up to two years.
Howard (1908) considered H. rufi s as a two_host tick with one generation a year in South-Africa. He described, illustrated, and discussed the imature stages but did not differentiate them from those of H. truncatum which he apparently did not rear. Jack (1928) noted a-two_h5st and a three.host type of life cycle for this tick.
Thorburn (1952) states that on cattle the chief site of infestation of this tick is in the tail region. Specimens in the present collection are from the flanks, genitalia, udders, and perianal regions. The anal area is mentioned by Matthysse (1954). Nymphs are always, in our experience, on the crown of the head of their avian hosts.
du Toit and M'<'>nnig (191.2) record the finding of a male at. tached to the hard palate of the mouth of a cow, and indicated that on the farm where this occured this phenomenon had been ob. served on several occasions.
H. rufi es ranges through the more arid areas of tropical and southern Africa but only localized populations maintain themselves in the severely arid conditions of northern Africa. It exists where annual rainfall is from ten to thirty inches a year. It may also thrive in irrigated areas with diminished rainfall or where a long, severe dry season occurs between an annual rainy season of approximately forty inches. In the Sudan, it is more common in the drier savannah and semiarid central areas than in the southern forest and savannah areas; it occurs in the Nile Valley, but is not known in extreme desert conditions. In Egypt,