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TANGANYIKA [ As H. planum and H. aegyptium albi parmatum: Schulze (1919). "As H. aegyptium imoressum transiens: Chodzies_ ner (1924). As H. imoressum transiens and as H. Lewisi: Schulze (1936E). Kratz 71970). See KENYA above. As H. aegyptium: Cornell 1936. ?As H. impressum planum f. rhinocerotis: Schulze and Schlottke (1930) and Kratz (1940); the synonymy of this name is uncertain but it is suspected to apply to H. truncatum. See HOSTS below.7

SOUTHERN AFRICA: ANGOLA (As H. impressum transiens: Sousa Dias 1950. Santos Dias 1950C. As H. transiens:

As H. transiens: Theiler and Robinson 1954. Santos Dias 1950C noted that H. savignyi" had been reported from Angola by A. Morais in 1909, and that this may refer to H. truncatum (= H. impressum transiens), MOZAMBIQUE (As H. impressum transiens: Theiler 1943B. Santos Dias 1947B 1953B, H,1954:. Tendeiro 1955.

Tendeiro 1955. As H. truncatum: Theiler 1956). NORTHERN RHODESIA (As H. transiens: Theiler and Robinson 1954. Matthysse 1954. See HOSTS below. SOUTHERN RHODESIA (As H. aegyptium impressum transiens: Chodziesner 1924. As H. aegyptium: Lawrence 1939. As H. a. aegyptium: Jack 1942. As H. truncatum: Theiler 1956. See HOSTS below). NYASAL AND (As H. impressum transiens: Wilson 1943,1946. As H. impressum: Wilson 1950B).

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SOUTHWEST AFRICA (As H. aegyptium impressum transiens: Chodziesner 1924. As H. impressum transiens: Kratz 1940. As H. aegyptium aegyptium: Bedford 1932B. AS H. transiens: Fiedler 1953. See HOSTS below). SWAZILAND (As H. a. aegyptium: Bedford 1932B. As H. truncatum: Theiler 1956). BĒCHUANALAND (As H. aegyptium impressum transiens: Chodziesner 1924. As H. trun catum: Theiler 19567. BASUTOLAND: Absent; Theiler (1956). ]

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (The "H. aegyptium of Dönitz 1910B and of Cooley 1934 apparently incIudes both H. rufipes and H. truncatum. As H. a. aegyptium: Loumsbury 19040. A. Theiler 1905B, 1906. Howard 1908. Bedford 1920,1926,1927,1932B,1936. Nieschulz and du Toit 1937. P. J. du Toit 1931. Finlayson, Grobler, and Smithers 1940. R. du Toit 1942A,B,1947A. As H. impressum impressum: Theiler 1943B. As H. transiens: Erasmus 1952. Thorburn 1952. Neitz 1954. As H. truncatum: Feldman

Muhsam 1954. Theiler 1956.
See HOSTS below).

As H. aegypticum (sic): Gear 1954.

Schulze and

* SHORES OF THE ZAMBESI" (As H. zambesiacum: Schlottke 1930. Kratz 1940).

ARABIA: YEMEN (Hoogstraal, ms.).

OUTLYING ISLANDS: MADAGASCAR (Recently introduced: Hoogstraal 1953E. Theiler 1956). SEYCHELLES (Desai 1941; not stated whether introduced or established). ZANZIBAR (As H. aegyptium: Aders 1917).

HOSTS

Domestic cattle and goats are the most common hosts of H. truncatum but other large wild or domestic mammals may be in rested. Wild carnivores are seldom recorded as hosts. Rarely, small mammals, birds, or tortoises are also attacked. Immature stages are definitely known from birds and hares but most published remarks concerning these stages should be accepted with reservation because of questionable identity.

Adults

Domestic animals: Cattle

Cattle (Bedford 1932B, Schulze 1936C, Fotheringham and Lewis 1937, Sousa Dias 1950, Wilson 1943,1946, 1950B, Rousselot 1951, Rageau 1951,1953, Santos Dias 1953B. Sudan records above. Numerous specimens in various collections examined for the present study). Goats (Bedford 1932B, Rousse_ lot 1951, Hoogstraal 1953D,E. Numerous BMNH specimens. Sudan records above). Sheep (Bedford 1932B, Wilson 1950B, Sousa Dias 1950, Rousselot 1951, Hoogstraal 1953D. BMNH specimens. Sudan records above). Camels (Aders 1917, Rousselot 1951. BMNH specimens from British Somaliland. Hoogstraal, Yemen ms. Sudan records above). Horses (Bedford 1932B, Sousa Dias 1950, Rageau 1953. Sudan records above).

Sudan records above). Donkeys" (Bedford 1932B, Rousselot 1951).

Mules, dogs, and rarely cats (Bedford 1932B). Dog (BMNH specimens from Canary Islands, Eritrea, and Transvaal).

Wild antelopes: Tiang (Sudan records above). Roan antelope (Bedford 1932B, Cooley 1934, Tonelli Rondelli 1930A. BMNH spec imens from Nigeria. Sudan records above). "Ozanna grandicornis" (Santos Dias 1952D). Wildebeest (Matthysse 1954. Onderstepoort specimens from South Africa). Nyasa wildebeest (J. B. Walker specimens from Tanganyika). Lichtenstein's hartebeest (Santos Dias 1952D,1953B). Brindled gnu or blue hartebeest (Bedford 1932B, Santos Dias 1953B). Sassaby or bastard hartebeest (BMNH specimens from South Africa). Eland (Chodziesner 1924, Bedford 1932B, Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1953B. BMNH specimens from Southern Rhodesia and Southwest Africa. Onderstepoort specimens from South Africa). Greater kudu (Santos Dias 1953B). Bushbuck (MCZ specimens from South Africa). Western defassa waterbuck (Rageau 1953). Gemsbok (Onderstepoort specimens from South Africa).

Other wild animals: Hedgehog (Bedford 1936). Hares (BMNH specimens from Kenya and Nigeria). Bushpig (Santos Dias 1953B. HH specimens from Eritrea. Sudan records above). Warthog (Santos Dias 1953B, Bedford 1932B, Rageau 1953. Numerous BMNH specimens from Kenya and Nigeria. Sudan records above). White or square lipped rhinoceros, southern race McZ specimens). Black or narrow lipped rhinoceros (Schulze 1919, Schulze and Schlottke 1930. BMNH specimens from Kenya). Buffalo (Schulze 1919, Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1952D,H,1953B. MCZ and BMNH specimens from Kenya. J. B. Walker specimens from Tanganyika. Sudan records above). Dwarf buffalo (Rageau 1953). Giraffe (chodziesner 1924. MCZ specimens from Kenya. BMNH specimens from Tanganyika. Onder. stepoort specimens from Transvaal and Southwest Africa. Numerous Sudan specimens recorded above). Burchell's zebra (Santos Dias 1952D,1953B). Zebra (Matthysse 1954. BMNH specimens from Kenya. Onderstepoort specimens from Northern Rhodesia). Lion and ant bear (Wilson 1950B). Leopard (BMNH specimens from Kenya. Onderstepoort specimens from Southern Rhodesia). Jackal and African porcupine Matthysse 1954. Onderstepoort specimens from Northern Rhodesia).

Reptiles: Tortoise (Sudan records above).

Birds: Cape thick knee, Burhinops capensis (Bedford 1932B). Ostrich (Io and 19 in HH collection, from west of Afmadu", Somalia, 1952, Col. D. Davis legit. Ostriches in Southwest Africa (Theiler, correspondence).

Man: Several specimens from Kataguna and Katagum, Nigeria, and from Kenya in BMNH collections (HH det.).

Immature Stages

Nymphs on dogs and hedgehogs (Rousselot 1951). Larvae and nymphs sometimes on cattle, sheep, and goats (Fotheringham and Lewis 1937). Nymphs on hares (Wilson 1946,1950B, Sousa Dias 1950. Fiedler 1953). Larvae from a hornbill, Tokus flavirostris leucomelas (Santos Dias 1952D). "Immatures" from a pied crow, Corvus albus albus in Transvaal (Theiler, correspondence).

BIOLOGY

Life Cycle

Unstudied. Wilson (1946) was unable to rear this species in Nyasaland.

Ecology

The African hyalomma, another xerophilic member of this genus, obviously differs somewhat from H. rufipes in ecological requirements but the limiting factors are not yet recognized clearly enough for proper elucidation. As stated above, the distribution of H. truncatum is strictly limited to the Ethio pian Faunal Region and its range is widespread and fairly continuous within these confines except in heavily forested and high rainfall areas. Wilson (1953) includes H. truncatum in the A. gemma - R. pravus (= R. neavi) association (see page

) that occurs where annual rainfall seldom exceeds 25 inches.

In southern Africa (Theiler 1956), the range of H. trunca tum differs from that of H. rufipes in that the former is absent at higher elevations with high rainfall but present in cooler lowland winter rainfall areas. In regions with 25 inches of annual rainfall populations are rare and isolated. In Equator. ial Africa, however, the African hyalomma does tolerate this and a slightly higher range of rainfall (HH). Here a combina tion of factors including higher temperatures, long dry seasons,

and lower average relative humidity probably modify this tick's ecological thresholds (HH).

In southern Africa, low temperature and high altitude do not in themselves limit the range of H. truncatum. It occurs in all types of South African vegetation except in short grass of the highveld, a mountainous zone associated with high rain fall, and is rare or absent where snow falls.

From the size and veriety of collections examined, it ap pears that in comparison with H. rufipes, H. truncatum may be somewhat less numerous and more widely ranging in southern Africa but that the reverse is true towards and beyond the equator. This matter, however, requires more careful study. H. truncatum is rare or never present in the forests of western Africa,

This species was not collected in high rainfall areas of the Cameroons (Unsworth 1952), and is unusual if not entirely absent on the humid west bank of Equatoria Province in the Sudan.

In Northern Province of Nyasaland, where H. truncatum is the only species of this genus that is found, Temales engorge on cattle chiefly during the dry season (March, April, May) but also in small numbers during other months of the dry sea son. Nymphs were found on hares early in the rainy season (October) and also in December (Wilson 1946).

Adults attach in the brush of hair at the tip of the tail, between the hooves, in the inguinal and perianal areas, and on the scrotum and udders.

A hymenopteran parasite, Hunterellus theileras, has re cently been described from nymphs of H. truncatum of Southwest Africa and from nymphs of Rhipicephalus oculatus from Transvaal (Fiedler 1953). Cooley (1934) reared Hunterellus hookeri from nymphs of "H. aegyptium in South Africa, but it appears that he included both H. truncatum and H. rufipes under this name.

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