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The much mooted name H. aegyptium has been frequently used as a "catchall“ by workers_in many countries for a number of spe. cies. Consequently much literature referring to Hgalomma ticks has been hopelessly confused, even to the present ay.

King (1926) lumped all Sudan species under the name H.

as tium*, as did most other workers on African and Near'Eastern ticés of his time. H. as tium (Linne, 1758) is now recognized as a distinct parasite o ortoises in the Mediterranean area and Near East. In Russia it is confined to Crimea, Georgia, Armenia, the Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Turkmen, Uzbek, and Tadzhik (Pomerantzev 1950). It is common in many parts of Asia Minor (Hoogstraal, ms.) and occurs in Afghanistan (Anastos 1954).

The tortoise hyalomma does not occur in the Sudan, elsewhere in tropical or southern Africa, or in Europe away from the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. Although originally described from Egypt, where tortoises are said to have been numerous on the Mediterranean littoral, H. ae tium apparently is now extinct here. In present_day Egypt: tor€o§ses occur only a few miles east of the Libyan border _ extremely rarely as far as seventy miles east of Libya - and in Sinai a few miles west of Palestine. No ticks have been found on recent Egyptian tortoises, except on specimens from Palestine in Cairo pet-shops.

Tortoises are the hosts of predilection of adult H. ae tium. Exceptionally, lizards, hares, and hedgehogs are attacked. Efiile other mammals may be infested rarely, long lists of various hosts for this tick are all erroneous, based as they are on old records in which all species were lumped under the name H. aegyptium. In


*With reference to reports of "H. aegyptiunf from the Sudan, it should be noted that the actua1_tick species with which o'Fei-i~e11 (1913A,B), did his interesting work on an entomogenus trypanosome, Crithidia (?Herp§tomonas) hyalommae, cannot now be determined.


Anatolia, however, when rearing larvae and nymphs from tick.infested animals, it was found that these at as commonl attack tortoises, lizards (ggama), partridges, man, fies, Qgehogs, and a wide variety 0 ents (Hoogstraal, ms.). A number of Russian host records were presented by Olenev (19288).


The life cycle of "11. aeagium" described by Nuttall (1915) applies to H. mar inatum. u s lot 1305a in British Museum (Natural History was used for this stuiy. No material for his let X (from Rome) can now be located. It appears that the study of the external morphology of each stage and of the bionomics of "£1. ae tium" in India (Sharif 1921.) applies actually to £1. excavatum, But this is not certain.


A popular article concerning the actual H. as tium has recently appeared in the Illustrated London News (groaning 1950). Based on living ticks arriving in the British Isles on pet_shop tortoises from southern Europe, this account should interest persons who frequently encounter this name promiscuously used in the literature. Distribution data in the Browning paper are from literature references under H. as tium, and, therefore, far more extensive than the actual geographic range of this species in natue.

Conte r blished re rts on disease transmission by ticks o una ely contfiue o _tuate the early confusion


_,i_ In Iden 1 ica ion of s cies in s enus. The ortoise para. .._ _E__ 1., 5_,...,.

site, _H. aefiéum, has never_'5een incriminated as a vector or reservoir 0 pa gem? organisms of man, other mamma'lTo_r Bias.


H. ae tium does, however, transmit two sporozoa to land tortoises ini noFEhwestern Africa and in the Near East. These are Haemo arina mauritanica and H. ste anovi (cf. Sergent and ergen , Laveran EH Nege_l~e and Comte 1905, Laveran and Pettit l9l0, Brumpt 19383; and Laveran 1901, Marzinowsky 1927, Popovici_Baznosano l90l,l906,l907, and Reichenow 1910). Another parasite from this tick Coelomo lasma

95$) Tlgthofit

%alommae, has been briefly described by Brumpt (1
er classification as to group (see also Brumpt l938E).

Further studies on these parasites have not been encountered.

Certain unusual morphological characters of this easily recog_ nized species cause the tortoise hyalomma to be considered in a separate subgenus, Hyalommasta Schulze, 1930.

Q. aegygtium ctata Schulze, 1919 (see also Kratz 1940), a name propose or a sing e specimen from Malta ad subsequently overlooked by even Schulze himself, is undoubtedly a synonym of

g. aegyptium.

Pomerantzev (1950) considers Dermacentor rosmari Ass (1935), described from nymphs from walrus in the Kara ‘white, Sea and said to be the northernmost ticks on record, as a synonym of H. as ' tium. On the basis of the original description and i11d§_ {rations of D. rosmari, its systematic position is uncertain but this synonymy is hardly convincing.

The synonymous name §. syriacum Koch, 1844, has frequently been used for the actual_§. aegyp ium. So far as has been deter. mined, Q. syriacum has been co us with no other species.

Both sexes can be readily distinguished from key characters provided herein.


Figures 191. and 195, d‘, dorsal and ventral views
Figures 196 and 197, Q, dorsal and ventral views

A, Q, genital area. B and C, Q, genital area,
outline and profile, unengorged.

I-IYALWIMA ALBIPARMATUM Specimens from cattle, enya; from fiuttfil lot 3773, exchange, British Museum (Natural History). Hoogstraal collection.

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H. albiparmatum, presently known only from Kenya, Tanganyika, and Togo, s sim. ar to H. truncatum except that the central fes

toon is differentiated as a parma 1?: the form of a celluloidlike cover of variable size, shape, and color. No constant characters have been discovered for differentiating females of these two species.

Delpy (19498) considered H. i essum albi matum Schulze and Schlottke, 1930, from East- rica, as a synonym o H. mar. inatum (= H. savi i) or questionably of H. truncatu.m-(-_HI trans ens);-he cons ered H. brunnei armatum o~ andSEm?ttke (1930) to be a synonym of H. marginatum (: saviggyi).

Feldman-Muhsam (1954) stated, after examining Kenya laboratory. reared material of albi armatum submitted by J. E. Walker that H. albi armatum is a synonym of H. truncatum. Dr. Theiler and the writer, Eter examination of the_same material, are convinced that Walker's H. albi a.rmatum is a distinct genetic entity worthy of full species rfi. It is also apparent from Walker's material and from other series in British Museum (Natural History) collections that H. imgessum brunnei armatum Schulze and Schlottke, 1930, from Togo 18 a synonym of H. E151 armatum and not of H. truncatum as stated by Feldman-M_uhsam . ss Walker ispreparing a report on this species for publication in Parasitology. Hosts of the parmated African hyaloxmna appear to be the same as those of H. truncatum.


British Museum (Natural History) collections contain material from cattle and from a rhinoceros from Zatta Plains, Kajiado, Namanga, and the Masai Reserve, Kenya (HH det.). J. B. Walker (correspondence) has seen specimens from a rhinoceros from Iringa District, Tanganyika, and from a warthog in Chunya District, Tanganyika.

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